Citations and Conclusions*short introductory message*I am not finished with this section -- but it is more complete than not. When this *short introductory message* disappears I will be finished. But I still may have left something else. If you see something I have left out, please email me at email@example.com.
Carlson cites 1,622 sources. All my efforts have barely scratched the surface of what he had to say, and I have been working on this project about three months.
There are two main reasons that have compelled me to place a small portion of his efforts online. One is constant harassment by people who think their Malungeon ancestors were Portuguese. Their position has constantly shifted. People who used to say the Melungeons were “Portuguese” changed their position to be willing to admit they were Portuguese and Indian. Now they are reduced to grabbing at straws, and if they find a single Portuguese anywhere in Virginia or the Carolinas, they pint to him and say, “He was the ancestor of all the Melungeons”, without proof, and their only evidence is that he was recorded by someone long ago, as passing through the American South in Colonial times. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary proofs. Even if one day a link is made with a single Portuguese to the Melungeons, one individual hardly makes an “association of Portuguese Adventurers”, as Dromgoole put it. More recently the DNA testing has proven there is an African component in the mix as well. Now that cat is out of the bag as well, it makes it less and less likely that there is any Portuguese element at all.
My second reason for this project is that some people misunderstood the results of the Melungeon DNA Project. They falsely concluded that there was no strong American Indian component in the mix. Doctor Carlson’s results show that there would have been no mixed race people called Malungeons, had it not been for the American Indian component. This needs to be more commonly known. There is a paper trail from the Saponi Indians at Fort Christanna in Southeastern Virginia to the doorsteps of the known Malungeon families in Southwestern Virginia and Northeastern Tennessee. As wily coyote stalks his prey, so Dr. Carlson has sniffed out little known documents dating from the time period in question.
He shows us the path taken by the Saponi/Catawba remnant bands down to the present day. I remember as a child we’d visit a cousins home in the country. They had 160 acres and a creek ran through it. There wasn’t much water in it, but there were trees meandering along the length of the creek. A cousin and I would walk down to the creek, and call his dog, named “Mister”. That dog was amazing. We’d try to fool him by going around one tree 3 times clockwise, go around another then come back to the first time and go around it twice counterclockwise, make wild variations in the path we took, and then sit on 100 feet away and just watch. That dog was amazing. He’d follow the EXACT path we took, going clockwise 3 times around that tree. Later come back to it and go counterclockwise the same number of times we did, and eventually, with his nose to the ground, walk right up to us. Had he looked up he could have seen us earlier I suppose, but I always thought it was ‘magic’ he found us at all. To me, Dr. Carlson’s work rivals the efforts of Mister, and I say this as a great compliment.
Each weekend I have been transcribing a little here and there from Dr. Carlson’s work. I finally got finished only to realize there was still a lot of work to do. Dr. Carlson cited so many sources. So this weekend, Memorial Day weekend, I have been going over those transcriptions, and have been adding references, citations, at the appropriate locations. I have left his original numbering just to show the vast amount of research required on his part. Also it shows just how much I have left out. What I have presented is just the tip of the iceberg. I couldn’t add everything. I have probably missed some of the citations, but I suspect I have nearly all of them.
Well, here are the citations. I created 7 blog entries, and here are the citations mapped to those seven.
When I have time, I’ll add where these citations come from – please be patient. Thank.
Carlson uses abbreviations throughout. Here are a list of the abbreviations he used that I have referenced. If I have used a citation once, I have not repeated it a second time when it is used again. “[n. d.]” meaning “no date” is used on a few occasions.
Carlson, Richard Allen, Jr.: 1998a “Exploring the Enrollment Event of D. W. Siler, and Other Moments in the Cherokee Diaspora: The Racial State, Colonial Momentum and the Eastern Cherokee in the Nineteenth Century”. Unpublished Paper presented at the Fourteenth Annual International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Congress of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Va. July 26, 1998 on file at the Michigan State University Department of Anthropology Library.
Worden, William L. 1947. “Sons of the Legend”, Saturday Evening Post, October 18:28+. à [perhaps a typo?]
VSA-OCOB: Virginia State Archives, Orange County Order Book
VHS-OLAS: Official Letters of Alexander Spotswood, Volumes 1 and 2. Edited by Brock. Richmond, Virginia, Virginia State Historical Society.
John Fontaine: 1972; The Journal of John Fontaine: An Irish Huguenot Son in Spain and Virginia, 1710-1719. Edited with introduction by Edward Porter Alexander. Williamsburg, Virginia: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.
WMQ: William and Mary Quarterly, Series 1-3, Williamsburg, Virginia: College of William and Mary.
VMHB: Unknown at present
CVSP: Calendar of Virginia State papers, 1652-1869, W. P. Palmer et al., eds., Volumes 1-11. Richmond (1875-1893).
Byrd, William. 1928. A Journey to the Land of Eden and Other Papers. Macy-Masius, Vanguard Press.1967, William Byrd’s Histories of the Dividing Line Betwixt Virginia and North Carolina.. Introduction and notes by William K. Boyd and New Introduction by Percy G. Adams. New York: Dover Publications.
6.] Carlson, 1996, Carlson 1998, Carlson 1999.
39.] Worden 1947, 29; Carlson and Everett, 1995.
67.] VSA-OCOB Roll 31; 309; January 1743; Grinnen 1889-1890; Scott 1907, 56.
115.] VHA-OLAS V2:63-65. March 13, 1713. Spotswood to Bushop of London.
117.] VHS-OLAS V2:52-55; March 18, 1713. Spotswood to Earl of Dartmouth and Lords Comm’rs of Trade.
133.] Fontaine 1972, 98
136.] VHS-OLAS V2: 158-159. May 23, 1716; August 1716; and November 27,1716; VHS-OLAS V1:41. September 17, 1716.
137.] WMQ V3, Ser. 2:40-45. Journal of Lt. Governor’s Travels and Expedition: “The Spotswood’s Mileage Accounts”,entries dated May 1716; July 9, 1716; and November 27, 1716; VHA-OLAS V1:41. September 17, 1716.
150.] Documents of Colonial History New York, V5: 673; VMHB V12:343-347, April 1, 1723. Journal of the Virginia Executive Council; VMHB V12;343-347, April 1, 1723
151.] VMHB V12:343-347, April 1, 1723. Journal of Virginia Executive Council, referring to the proceedings of December 12, 1722.
181.] CVSP V1: 215. Sept 1728.
210.] Byrd, 1967, 120.
MHB: unknown at present
Mitchell, John. 1993. Map of North America. [reprinted in Cummings, 1958].
Cummings, William P., 1958. The Southeast in Early Maps; With an Annotated Chick List of Printed and Manuscript Regional and Local Maps of Southeastern North America During the Colonial Period, Princeton University Press.
Alvord’s Comments: unable to find at this time.
Kegley, Mary B. and Kegley, F. B. 1980/1982. Early Adventurers on the West Waters of Virginia in the Pioneer Days. Volume 1 and 2. Orange, Va. Green Publishing Company.
VMHB: unknown at present
Gregg, Alexander. 1867, History of the Old Cheraw. , Continued Account of the Aboriginees of Pee Dee, 1730-1810. New York.
Lewis, Ernest. 1951. The Saura Indians 1540-1768: An Ethno-Archeological Study”. Master’s Thesis, University of North Carolina.
Merill, James H. 1985. The Indian’s New World: Catawba’s and their Neighbors From European Contact to the Era of Removal. University of North Carolina Press.
Mooney, James. 1891. The Sacred Formula of the Cherokees, Seventh Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institute.
NCSA: North Carolina State Archives, Raleigh, N. C., File No. T. O. 105.1, Orange County. N. C., Tax List.
Kegley, F. B., Kegley’s Virginia: The Beginning of the Southwest, Roanoke oof Colonial Days, 1740-1783. Roanoke, Va: The Southwest Virginia Historical Society.
Houck, Peter W. and Maxham, Mintey D., Indian Island in Amherst County, Lynchburg, Va.
Davis, Rosalie, 1981. Louisa County, Virginia Tithables and Census 1743-1785. Privately Published by author.
Elder, Patricia Spurlock 1999. Melungeons, Examening an Appalachian Legend, Blountville, Tn.: Continuity Press.
EAID-TL: Early American Indian Documents- Treaties and Laws 1706-1786 (1979 Washington D. C. University Publications of America.)
V 1: Pennsylvania and Delaware treaties, 1629-1737. Donald H. Kent, ed.
V 2: Pennsylvania Treaties, 1737-1756. Donald H. Kent, editor.
V 4: Virginia Treaties, 1607-1722. W. Stitt Robinson, editor.
V 5: Virginia Treaties, 1723-1775. W. Stitt Robinson, editor.
V 15: Virginia and Maryland Laws, 1607-1789. A Vaughn and D. Rosen, eds.
V 16: Carolina and Georgia Laws. A Vaughn and D. Rosen, eds.
233.] MHB V35:267-268. October 22, 1729. Virginia Council Journals – Council Orders.
234.] Mitchell’s Notes and Alvord’s Comment’s, n. p. 1755; Kegley and Kegley (1938); 11.
240.] VMHB V35:267-268. October 22, 1729;Virginia Councils Journals.
241.] VMHB V35:267-268. October 22, 1729; Virginia Councils Journals.
247.] Descriptions of Sara/Cheraw history is provided in Gregg (1867), Lewis (1951), Merrill (1985), Mooney (1894).
266.] VSA-OCOB Roll 31: n. f. n. May 12, 1742; VSA-OCOB Roll 31:309. January 1743; Grinnen 1890:189-190); Scott 1907:56.
267.] VMHB V 14:224-245. Petition of Alex’r Maurchtoon, BSA-OCOB Rolls 30:and 31.
268.] VSA-OCOB Roll 30; n. f. n., 1740; Scott 1907:56.
270.] VSA-OCOD Roll. 31: n. f. n. May 12, 1742.
274.] NCSA-RBCOM. 2.4-132-n. August 22, 1743. Gooch to Colonial Office.
285.] Kegleys 1938; Houck 993, 31-35; “General Map of the Middle Brittish Colonies and the Country of the Confederate Indian”,by Lewis Evans, Second Edition, 1755, Philadelphia. Not far south of the Nassayn on the James were a number of “Monacan” Indians who frequented the trading posts of hughes and his wife Nikketti (a Pamunkey woman), or the post belonging to their mixed blood son Davis who opened a new post about this time on Peddler’s River. Thre very likely was a personal interaction between these Monacan, the Powhattan mixed blood traders and the Christian Saponi during the mid-1700s.
286.] Davis, 1981, 157, Liousa County Court documents, entry dated , June, 25, 1745. Also shown living here and concealing tythables were men named William Hall, Benjamin Brannum and William Donothan. I have yet to confirm these men’s conection to the Christian Saponi, but at least two probably were white men connected through intermarriage. The Branham surname becomes common among the Monacan Indians of the region later in the century, suggesting a genealogical connection between the Christian Saponi and the Monacans existed during this era. The Benjamin Brannum charged here with concealing tithables on the afore mentioned 1745 list was apparently a white man who had lived in the county since at least 1745. Benjamin married a daughter of Gilbert Gibson. See Hauck (1993), and Elder (1999),, for more in depth discussions on the Monacan Branham families.
287.] EAID-TL V4: 152, Act of May 9,1723. This act was revised in 1748 and held until 1777. For a discussion of the complications involved in interpreting old tax lists like these, see Carroll (1996: 5).
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Carroll, Cornelious, 1996. How to Use Tax Lists. Harold, Ky.
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289.] See NAM M805-355: 55-62. January 19, 1839. Revolutionary War Pension Application of Charles Gibson.
293.] Cumming (1958); Plate 57, “A Map of the Inhabited Part of Virginia 1751 , by Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson; “General map of the Middle British Colonies and the Country of the Confederate Indian”, by Lewis Evans, second edition, 1755, Philadelphia; Bowen (1752): A New and Accurate Map of the Provinces of North and South Carolina &c” n. p.; John Mitchell, Map of North America, 1755.
299.] Bowen (1752); A New and Accurate Map of the Provinces of North and South Carolina &c” n. p.
300.] Revealing problems one encounters in colonial cartography, Mitchell’s map does not reflect that Orange County had been formed from Granville 2 years prior.
301.] See Documents Related to Indian Affairs, SC 1958, 454. Proceeding to the Council Concerning Indian Affairs,, July 23, 1753; Robert Steel to Gov. Glen.
310.] EAID-TL V4: 105, 366.
312.] Extract of Lunenburg County, Va, Tax List, as cited in Carroll (1996): 16.
314.] Elder 1999, 223, 323. Like the Sizemores, Moses Ridley’s own tribal heritage remains unknown. From this information one might assume that the Riddle’s and the Sizemore’s were of the same tribal affiliation, although one can not say for sure. It is thought by some descendants today that Moses may have been the father-in-law of Tom Collins Jr. (see Blackburn et al, 1988: 5).
315.] NSCA File no. T. O. 105.1: 1755 Orange Co., NC, Tax List.
316.] This name “Mager” may be a misspelling of “Micager”. However, it too could be a misspelling of “Major”, referring to a commission like the earlier “Captain Tom” up in Orange County over a decade before.
317.] NSCA File no. T. O. 105.1: 1755 Orange Co., Tax List.
338.] OCNC-AMCPQS: 66. Minutes, February [n. d.] 1761. Ogle vs. Ben Bolin.
339.] For example, see CRNC V7: 306. November 17, 1766. A bill to prevent hunting and killing deer . . .
343.] CRNC V5: 141-144. August 12, 1754. “Treaty . . . Between Alexander Osborn and James Carter, Esq. Commissioners, and the Catawba Indians”; VMHB V13: 225-265. 1756. “A Treaty between the Virginia and the Catawbas and Cherokees”. See also CSRNC V11: 179-205, 1763. Minutes of Governor’s Conference (Fort Augusta) with the Chickasaw, Choctaw, Catawba’s and the Cherokees”. At that conference, King Hagler, the primary Chief of the Catawbas, represented the Catawbas and their several tribes or nations.
344.] Schoolcraft, 1853, Pt. 3, citing Col. Boquet’s “Warrior census of Indian Nations, 1764”, Cumming 1958: A COmpleat Map of North Carolina”, 1770 by John A. Collett.
352.] Magazine of Virginia Genealogy, V35, N3: 208-211. Delinquent Tax List of Botetourt County, Va., 1773, transcribed by Julia Case, and V 25, N1: 11-19. “A Tithable List for Botetourt Parish, Fincastle Co., Va., Ctb., Richard Slatten; Kegley and Kegley 1980, 35; Kegley 1938.
351.] WSA-DC-PVP, 3QQ64. July 13, 1774. Cap. Russell to Col. Preston. WSA-DC-PVP, [n. d. 1772].
353.] Ibid. Old Tom Collins, however, was not shown although other documents suggest he was in the area at that time. It may be that he was living far enough downstream on the New River to be considered in North Carolina jurisdiction that year (see Wilkes County, NC Land Entry Book 1012; June 9, 1770, deed of Hohn Livingston.). Kegley and Kegley (1980): 35, also lists people who had “runaway” from the county without paying their taxes, and included Charles and William Sexton, William Cox, the famous longhunter James Newman, and a number of men from the Blevins family. The Blevins would become intimately tied with the mixed-blood Sizemore family after the Revolution.
357.] For an interesting perspective on the debates surrounding setting the Indian boundary line, in the Cherokee treaties of 1767/1768 and 1770 (the Lockabee Treaty), see VMHB V 12: 26; “Virginia and the Cherokees: The Treaties of 1768 and 1770”, which also contains correspondences and a copy of the Treaty of Fort Stanwix. These Cherokee treaties fixed the Cherokee boundary line at the Laurel Fork of the Holston which divided Virginia from Lord Glanville’s property in North Carolina (see map 7).
423.] NAM M685 R7-11: Misc. Testimonies, Sizemore Case, 21-22. April 1, 1908. Testimony of James Woody, Laurel Springs, NC; Jordan (1987): 144-145.
424.] See EAID-TL V5: 18-19.. Dec. 11, 1734. “Cherokee Seek Closer Relationship with Virginia, Tributaries, and Northern Indians”.
501.] See NAM M. 1104, R87 Appl. 8584, Wm. Blevins. NAM M687, Misc. Testimony, Sizemore Case 60-62, Marion, Va., Apr. 1908; Jorday 1987: 169.
503.] NAM M. 1104 R. 151: Appl. 16346, Feb. 1, 1907. Shepherd Cole, Gullett, Ky; NAM M. 1104, R253: Appl. 31699, Aug 6, 1907. J. M. Collins Brainard, Ky.; NAM M1104, R278: Appl. 35326. Sookey Nickles, Sublett, Ky., NAM M1104 R 253: Appl. 31696. Aug 1, 1907, Anderson Cole, Ivyton, Ky; NAM M1104 R252: Appl. 31624. Aug 1, 1907.
39.] Worden 1947, 29, Carlson and Everett (1995).
189.] Byrd 1967: 29
195.] Ibid 17, 92
322.] Fontaine 1972: 28
983.] Burnett (1889): 347-349. Burnett was medical doctor and not a trained ethnologist, historian or anthropologist.
991.] Burnett (1889) 347-349.
994.] Cocke County borders North Carolina, and thus is actually closer to the White Top Band of Cherokee and the now defunct New River Indian Community. Burnett may have indeed encountered more people from White Top than from Greasy Rock while living in Cocke County, although families from both areas did occasionally hire out as laborers in the valleys.
1004.] Sider (1993), 75, 79, 82, 88, 170.
1007.] See Dromgoole (1891a, 1891b) in the Arena and her earlier articles published in the Nashville Daily American (hereafter cited as NDA) under the name “Will Allen”. See “Land of the Malungeons” by Will Allen. August [n. d.] 1890, NDA: P. 10; Will Allen Comes Back at Her Credics in Gallant Style” September [n.d.] 1890. N. D. A.: P. 3. “A Strange People: Habits, Customs, and Characteristics of Malungeons”, Sept. 14, 1890, NDA, P 10, C 5-6.
1008.] “A Strange People: Habits, Customs, and Characteristics of Malungeons”, Sept. 14, 1890, NDA, P 10, C 5-6.
1026.] For example, see Wordon (1947).
524.] War of 1812 enlisted East Tennessee Drafted Militia, as cited in AQ V3 N4: 7, Blackburn et al (1998: 7); Dromgoole, (1891), see chapter 15.
534.] Southwest Virginia Historical Society Archives – Map of Southwest Virginia, circa 1820. As per notes of C. S. E. and B. K. I have not yet personally seen this map as it has been misplaced or removed.
538.] Southwest Virginia Historical Society Archives – Map of Southwest Virginia, circa 1820. As per notes of C. S. E.
546.] Hawkins County, Tn., Land Plat Book, entry dated Nov. 6, 1937, as cited in [a.u.] 1990.
896.] See NAM M1104 R135: Appl. 13895. John B. Brummett, Jan 28, 1907, Denver, Co.; NAM M1104 R135: Appl. 13895. Emmaline Connor, Jan 28, 1907, Valley, Ok, with enclosures September 1, 1908, Misc. testimony taken by H. Ketron, Asst. Special Commissioner, and May 24, 1909, E. Connor to Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
899.] Interestingly, but not really surprisingly, the Civil War enlistment records do not show James as Indian, but as with most other Saylorsville Indians, simply describe the recruits physical charasteristics, which in James case was “dark complexion, dark eyes, black hair, farmer” (MCHS-LBG: 1630/ “James (Jackson) Shephard”, contributed by Dovey Cole Hobbs Alstrom.