Wednesday, October 3, 2018

Catawba -- Saponi -- Melungeon; Ch. 14: Congressional Document

Chapter 14. Congressional Document
This document says it all, really. (291) (292). In this document, we see a lot about why the attempts to create a “Western Catawba Tribe” failed. While today, we have state recognized Siouan tribes in the Carolinas and in Virginia, here in Oklahoma we have nothing and silence. Why? This document pretty much says it all. I have transcribed it. This document has earned the right to be the last section of the book. It is well worth the wait. There are probably typos. My keyboard doesn’t always type the letters I ask it to do.
The Catawba Tribe of Indians, 54th Congress, 2nd session, Doc. 144, February 23rd, 1897
February 23rd, 1897 – ordered to be printed as Senate Document for use of committee on Indian Affairs. Mr. Pettigrew presented the following memorial on behalf of the individuals formerly comprising and belonging to the Catawba Tribe of Indians, and accompanying papers. Department of the Interior, Washington, Feb. 1, 1897.
Sir, I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of 23 ultimo, with the following papers:
A memorial on behalf of the individuals formerly comprising and belonging to the Catawba Tribe of Indians.
In response thereto, I transmit herewith copy of a communication of 29th instant from Commissioner of Indian Affairs, to whom the matter was referred.
I return herewith the memorial of the Catawbas, and transmit herewith copies of the Correspondence referred to in the Commissioners letter, which contains, it is stated, a full and complete testimony of those Indians as described from the files and records of his office and other sources, with his views concerning the policy to be adopted regarding them.
Very respectfully,
D. R. Francis, secretary.
The Chairman, Committee on Indian Affairs 
Department of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs, January 29th, 1897
            Sir, I am in receipt, by Department reference, of * * * * * a memorial in behalf of individuals formerly comprising and belonging to the Catawba Tribe of Indians, with request of the inquiries contained in said memorial be answered and information concerning the statements therein and the appended memorandum be furnished., the memorial submitted by Senator Pettigrew is signed by James Bain, and George E. Williamson, Secretary of the Catawba Indian Association, and they ask on behalf of the individuals formerly comprising and belonging to the Catawba Tribe of Indians to be informed “as to the status of the tribal lands of the Catawba Indians formerly occupied by the Catawba Tribe of Indians in the Carolinas, and to secure anything that may be due them as accruing from said lands, and also to receive any further relief, help, or benefits they may be found, upon careful examination of the facts in their case, be entitled to receive in write, justice or equity from the United States or otherwise in the matter of new homes in the West or their lands in the East.”
In answer to this memorial, I respectfully enclose herewith a copy of a letter from this office, dated January 16, 1896, addressed to Honorable H. M. Teller, United States Senate, also a copy of a letter from this office dated March 28th, 1896, addressed to R. V. Belt, esquire, in this city. These letters give a full and complete history of these Indians, as disclosed from the files and records of this office, concerning the policy that should be adopted respecting them.
The communication of Senator Pettigrew and the disclosures referred to therein a herewith returned.
Very respectfully,
Your obedient servant,
D. M. Browning, Commissioner
The Secretary of the Interior
To the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress Assembled;
Your petitioners come representing that they are the representatives of the individuals and their descendants who were formerly the members of the Catawba Tribe of Indians that owned and occupied lands in the states of North Carolina and South Carolina; that in pursuance of the policy of the United States to remove all the Indian Tribes to new homes to be provided for them west of the Mississippi River, Congress passed an act July 29,1848, appropriating $5,000 for the removal of the Catawba Indians, with their own consent, to the west of the Mississippi River, and for settling and subsisting them one year in new homes first to be obtained for them (9 stat. L., 264); that nothing was accomplished under this act; that the provisions and appropriations thereof were reenacted in the act of July 31, 1854 (10 stat. L., 316); that some efforts were made to secure for the Catawbas new homes among the Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians in the Indian Territory, and under the encouragement of hopeful results, and of the laws of Congress on the subject, many of the Catawba Indians left their lands and homes in the Carolinas and journeyed at their own expense to the country west of the Mississippi River, hoping and expecting to be there furnished with and located there and subsisted for one year upon new homes; that the Department of the Interior has so far failed to accomplish anything towards securing for the Catawbas such new homes or in doing anything in their behalf as was contemplated and expected under the provisions of the law referred to; that the Catawbas reached the states and territories bordering on the then Indian Territory, where they expected to be settled in new homes, but have been left stranded in that territory and in the neighboring states, where they have had to seek a livelihood s best they could, without any land upon which they could build homes for themselves and families; that they are in great need, and are very anxious to be given lands, homes, or allotments of any of the lands that now are or may hereafter become available for that purpose in the Indian Territory or n Oklahoma Territory; that they desire to be informed as to the status of the tribal lands of the Catawba Indians formerly occupied by the Catawba Tribe of Indians in the Carolinas, and to secure anything that may be due them as accruing them from said lands; and also to receive any other or further relief, help, or benefits they may be found, upon careful investigation of the facts in their case, be entitled to receive in right, justice or equity, from the United States or otherwise in the matter of new homes in the West or as to their lands in the East; and they pray that all these as the facts may warrant, demand and require.
And your petitioners will ever pray.
Fort Smith, Arkansas, December, 7, 1896
James Bain, President of Catawba Indian Association
Geo. E. Williamson, Secretary of Catawba Indian Association
The present location and number of those Catawba Indians who went West, expecting to be located on lands west of the Mississippi River by the Department of the Interior are as follows, as furnished by James Bain, president of the Catawba Indian Association at Fort Smith, Arkansas:
Greenwood, Ark.,44; Barber, Ark, 42; Crow, Ark., 13; Oak Bower, Ark., 3; Enterprise, Ark., 6; Fort Smith, Ark., 17; Total Ark., 125.
Checotah, I. T., 17; Texanna, I. T., 15; Jackson, I. T., 15; Star, I. T., 34; Panther, I. T., 22; Oak Lodge, I. T., 10; Redland, I. T., 4; Rainville, I. T., 2; Indianola, I. T., 3; Center, I. T., 4; Ward, I. T., Sacred Heart, I. T., 4; Steigler, I. T., 2; total 132.
Grand total, 257.
Department of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs, Washington, January 16th, 1896
I am in receipt of your letter of January 9, 1896, enclosing one from P. H. Head, a Catawba Indian, of Sanford, Colorado, submitting a petition purporting to have been signed by himself and 25 others, embracing six families, who claim to have once resided in South Carolina but are no longer “recognized” by said state, and asking to be united with the Ute Indians now living in the Uintah Reservation, and to be recognized by the Government as members of said Ute Tribe receiving and enjoying in common with them all rights and privileges at the protection of the government. Mr. Head, in his letter, intimates that this petition will be followed by one signed by the Ute Indians in Utah.
You asked that the matter might receive my attention, and advise given as to what steps are necessary to have this change made.
In reply, I have to say that it is the policy of the government to abolish the tribal relationship of the Indians as fast as possible, and to settle each Indian upon a separate tract of land that he can call his own, to the end that he may become self-supporting and independent of government bounty. It would not be in keeping with this policy, I think, to gather up people who happen to have more or less Indian blood in their veins and are living among the Whites, separate and apart from Indian communities, and incorporate them into a tribe and place them upon an Indian Reservation.
The General Allotment Act of 1887 wisely provided for Indains who were not living upon any reservation at the date of passage of said act, or for whose tribe no longer no reservation had been created, by allowing them to apply for and secure to themselves lands upon the public domain.
To answer your question directly as to what steps would be necessary to have these people united to the Indian Tribe occupying the Uintah Reservation in Utah, I should say that where there are no specific Treaty stipulations with any given tribe touching such matters, as to the case with these Ute Indians, the usual course perused is to obtain he consent of the tribe to which an Indian desires adoption and then to have such adoption approved by this office and the Secretary of the Interior; any such consent must be procured under the eye of the agent and should bear his certificate to the effect that the action of the Indians in adopting such Indian represented the wishes of the tribe and was taken in open council. This briefly would be the proper course to peruse in order to obtain adoption into an Indian Tribe.
The petition, with Mr. Head's letter, is herewith, respectfully returned.
Very respectfully,
D. M. Browning, Commissioner
Hon. H. M. Teller, United States Senate
Department of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs, Washington, March 28, 1896
I am in receipt of your letter of February 22nd, transmitting in pamphlet form a “Petition and Memorial in the matter of claims and demands of the Catawba Indian Association of the United States.” published at Fort Smith, Ark., giving the proceedings of a conventions of Catawba Indians held in that city April 15, 1895, called for the purpose of considering the condition, status and welfare of all Catawba, and all non-Reservation Indians, and to take action in procuring and allotment of land under the forth section of the General Allotment Act of Feb. 8, 1887 (24 Stat. L., p. 388), as amended by the Act of Feb 28., 1891 (26 Stat. L., p. 795).
This memorial purports to come from the Catawba Indians comprising, they allege, “All persons of Catawba Indian descent, and their descendants, including all persona who have intermarried with Catawba Indians, and all persons of mixed Catawba and White Blood and descent, residing in any of the states or territories of the United States or in the Indian Territory;” claiming further that the United States has never made any provisions for them in giving them a grantor title to large tracts of the public domain as it has done for the Cherokees, Creeks, and other tribes, only giving them a small tract of land in South Carolina, although belonging to the same groups of Indians as the Cherokee and Creeks; the United States of America has made no provisions whatever to occupy and use any part of the public domain belonging to the United States, except the aforesaid small tract of land in South Carolina, unless it be to take allotments under the aforesaid section 4 of the Act of 1887, as amended by the act of 1891, and asking for such Executive action or congressional legislation as may be necessary to secure equal rights with other Indians to share in the public domain belonging to the United States.
In your letter, transmitting this petition and memorial, you state that you are requested to ascertain (one) whether or not the Catawba have any tribal lands in the states of North or South Carolina to which the tribal title has not been ceded or extinguished; (two) whether there is any reason why these individual Indians may not take up lands in severalty on the public domain as provided in said section four of The Act of 1887.
You suggest that arrangements might be made whereby they could take land in severalty within the Kiowa and Comanche and Wichita Reservations, Oklahoma Territory, when the unallotted lands of said reservation shall be opened to public settlement, or between the time of the ratification of their agreements, and the issue of the president’s proclamation opening the same to settlement, or even before the ratification of said agreement, etc. 
In reply I have to state that the Catawba Indians are a division of North American Indians, which included in the last century twenty-eight confederated tribes. A few of these were in North Carolina, but most of them were in South Carolina. The principle tribe in the later state was the “Katawba.”  and their chief on in the former was the “Woccon”. The few survivors of this people are on the Catawba Reservation in York County, S. C. They do not belong to the Muscogeean linguistic stock, of North American Indians, as intimated in the Memorial, but to the Siouan stock, while the Cherokees belong to the Iroquoian stock.
In a publication entitled Statistics of South Carolina by Robert, Mills, published in 1826, in Charleston, South Carolina, by Hurlbut and Lloyd, pages 104-129, is given a history of the Indians or aboriginal of the country, to the effect that South Carolina, when first settled by the English, was settled with numerous tribes of Indians whose settlements extended from the ocean to the mountains. From documents extant in the secretary of state's office, and other sources that might be relied on, Mr. Mills concluded that the number of these different nations or tribes exceeded twenty-eight. The Westoes and Savannahs were the two most potent tribes. A right to the soil of the country was grounded upon the acknowledged truth of this doctrine, that the earth was made for man, and was intended by the creator of all things to be improved for the benefit of mankind. These wild lands therefore, were not recognized as the separate property of the few savages who hunted over them, but belonged to the common stock of mankind. This doctrine is agreeable to the judicial determination of the courts of South Carolina with respect to the rights in land derived solely from uninterrupted possession for a term formerly of five, now (1826) of ten years.
But most of the first settlers of Carolina, not satisfied to rest their right of soil upon the law of nature and their government, made private purchases from the Indians, and the government (state) itself entered into treaties with the aborigines. The first public deed of conveyance by the Indians found on record is dated March 10, 1675.
In giving a description of the names, location, and number of Indian tribes in Carolina about the year 1700 he gives the following on page 108:
“The Catawbas, Sugaree on Sugar Creek, Lancaster District, occupied the country above Camden on each side of the river of the same name, a small remnant of this tribe of Indians still occupies a tract of country, laid off 15 miles square, lying partly in York and partly in Lancaster districts, on both sides of the river.”
Speaking of the population, he states (p. 114):
“The Catawbas are now reduced, from habits of indolence and inebriation, to very few; their numbers do not exceed 110 of every age. In 1700, (some years after the first settlement of Carolina) they mustered 1,500 fighting men. This would give the population of the nation at that time between 8,000 and 10,000 souls. About the year 1743 the Catawbas could only bring 400 warriors into the field, composed partly of refugees from various smaller tribes, who, about this time, were obliged by the state of affairs to associate with them, on account of their reduced numbers. Among them were the Wateree, Chowan, Congaree, Nachee, Yamasee, and Coosah Indians. At present not 50 men can be counted in the list of their warriors.
The remains of their nation now occupy an area of 15 square miles, laid out on both sides of the Catawba River., and include parts of York and Lancaster districts. This tract embraces a body of fine lands, timbered with oak, etc. These lands are almost all leased out to White settlers for 99 years, renewable at the rate of $15-20 per annum for each plantation of about 300 acres. The annual income from these lands is estimated to amount to about $5,000. This sum, prudently managed, would suffice to support the whole nation, now comprised of about 30 families, comfortably. Yet these wretched Indians live is a state of abject poverty, the consequences of their indolence and dissipated habits. They ???? for their rent before it is due, and the $10 or $20 dollars received are frequently spent in a debauch; poverty, beggary, and misery follow for a year.
The Catawba have two villages, one on each side of the river. The largest is Newtown, situated directly on the river bank. To the other, which is upon the opposite side, they have given no name, but it is generally called Turkeyhead. King's Bottom” is a very rich tract of land which the Indians have had sense enough to reserve for their children.
The first settlement was made in this district by emigrants from Pennsylvania around the year 1745, was called “The Waxhaws”, from the name of the creek on which the principle settlements were located (then supposed to be within the bounds of North Carolina). These settlements were made in the neighborhood of the Catawbas, then a powerful and warlike tribe of Indians., whose chief town was situated on the west side of Sugar Creek (more properly “Sugawee,” that being the ancient Indian name), just opposite the mouth of Little Sugar Creek. The sight of this ancient town is now in York district and under cultivation in the plantation of Mr. Alderson, but not a vestige of it is to be seen.
About the year 1750 the early settlers of the Waxhaws became in a great measure rid of their powerful and dangerous neighbors, the Indians, as the small pox broke out among them and carried off, from the best information, three-fourths of the whole tribe. Shortly afterwards they leased out most of their lands on Sugar Creek to some of the emigrants and removed and settled in the towns where they now reside.”
In the description of the county of York, he states:
“This section of the of the country was settled about the year 1760, principly from Pennsylvania and Virginia. Its name may be placed to York, in Pennsylvania, from whence some of the first settlers came.
There are no other settlements, as villages, in the district, except the Indian settlement on Catawba River. These Indians have two towns. The most important is called Newtown, situated immediately on the river; the other is on the opposite side, and is called Turkeyhead. The Indian lands occupy an extent of country on both sides of the river equal to 180 square miles or 115,200 square acres. [NOTE: not my mistake – it does say “square acres. An acre is a measurement of area, not length, so the word “square” is redundant, confusing, and misleading]. Most of this has been disposed by them to the whites in leases for ninety-nine years, renewable. The rent of each plantation is from ten to twenty dollars per annum . . . The Catawba Nation could, at the first settlement of the state; muster 1,500 fighting men. At present their warriors do not exceed 30. For your information I include a sketch of a portion of a map of South Carolina and North Carolina, showing the aforesaid Reservation of 180 square miles.
Schoolcraft, in his History of the Indian Tribes of the United States, volume 3, page 293, has an article on “Carolina Manuscript Respecting the Origin of the Catawba”. In this paper he states that [note: this history is incorrect]:
“The Catawba are a Canadian Tribe. The Connewangos were their heredity enemies, and with the aid of the French, were likely at last, to overwhelm them. The Catawba, judging correctly of their perilous condition, determined on a removal to the vicinity of the English settlements. They set out from their ancient homes about the year 1650, crossed the St. Lawrence, probably around Detroit, and bore for the headwaters of the Kentucky River. The Connewangos all the time kept in full pursuit. The fugitives, embarrassed with their women and children, saw that their enemies would overtake them, chose a position near the source of the Kentucky and there awaited the onset of their more powerful adversaries. Turning therefore, upon their pursuers, with the energy desperation sometimes inspires, they gave them a terrible overthrow. This little nation, after their great victory, without proper regard to policy, divided into two bands. The one remained on the Kentucky, which was called by the hunters the Catawba, and were in time absorbed into the great families of the Chickasaws and Choctaws. The other band settled in Botetourt County, Virginia., upon a stream afterwards called Catawba Creek. They remained there but a few years, their hunters pressing on to the South, discovered the Catawba River, in South Carolina (Eswa Tavora), and the entire Virginia band (about 1660) came in a body to affect a permanent settlement upon that stream.
[NOTE: this whole story has no basis in fact whatsoever. Spanish explorers discovered Siouan speaking tribesmen in the Carolinas in the 1540s and again in the 1560/70s.]
“In the year 1735 the nation had in reservation only 30 acres of their large and fertile territory, not a foot of which was in cultivation. In the history of South Carolina, Ramsey solemnly evokes to the people of South Carolina to cherish this small remnant of a noble race, always the friends of the Carolinians, and ready to peril all for their safety. They never have shed a drop of American blood, nor stolen property to the value of a cent. They have lost everything but their honesty. Hagler or Haigler was a great man, and the nation still speak of him with great feeling. They have never looked up since his death.”
Hagler or Haigler was succeeded by King Prow or Frow in 1765, who reigned but a short time. On his death, General New River, who had gained a splendid victory on New River in Virginia over the Northern Indians, was called to rule over them., they having determined, in imitation of their white brethren, to repudiate royalty. He was succeeded by General Scott, grandson of King Hagler or Haigler, and afterwards by Colonel Ayers.
In an appendix to the laws of the Colonial and state governments relating to Indians and Indian affairs, from 1633 to 1831, inclusive, published in Washington City in 1832 by Thompson and Homans, is given the “Proceedings of the Congress and the Confederation relating to Indians and Indian Affairs.”
On page 15 of said Appendix, under the date of November 2, 1782, appears the following, viz:
“The Committee, consisting of Mr. Duane, Mr. Ramsey, and Mr. Wharton, to whom was referred a letter of the first, from the Secretary of War, report;
“That they have had a conference with the two deputies of the Catawba Nation of Indians; that their mission respects certain tracts of land reserved for their use in the state of South Carolina, which they wish may be so secured to their tribe as not to be intruded into by force, nor alienated even with their own consent; whereupon,
“Resolved, that it be recommended to the legislature of the State of South Carolina to take such measures for the satisfaction and security of the said tribe as the said legislature shall, in their wisdom, think fit.”
In Brevard's Digest of the Laws of South Carolina, vol. 1, title 96, Indians, among other things appears the following, adopted in 1808, viz.:
“Sec. 8. Whereas it is expedient that the Catawba Indians should have the power to grant and make leases for life, for lives, as well as for a term of years, of the lands vested in them by the laws of this state.
“Sec. 9. Be it therefore enacted, that from and immediately after the passing of this act, it shall and may be lawful for the Catawba Indians to grant and make to any person or persons any lease or leases, for life or lives or term of years of any of the lands vested in them by the laws of this state: provided that no lease shall exceed the term of 99 years or three lives in being.
“ Sec. 10. And be it further enacted, that the governor for the time being shall be authorized and is hereby required to appoint five fit and proper persons to superintend the leasing of the lands of the Catawba Indians in manner aforesaid. And no lease of the lands of the aforesaid Catawba Indians hereafter to be made, whether for life or lives or term of years, shall be healed or deemed as valid and good in law unless the same be witnessed by a majority of the said superintendents at the time of making thereof, and signed and sealed by at least four of the headmen or chiefs of said Catawba Indians: Provided, that an annual rent be reserved as a compensation for such lease.
“Sec. 11. And be it enacted, That the said superintendent shall be commissioned for the purpose aforesaid, for seven years, which commission shall be recorded in the office of Secretary of State, and an office copy thereof shall be taken and received as good evidence in any court of law or equity within this state as the original would be if produced in any case within it might be necessary to produce such original commission. 
“Sec. 12. And it be further enacted, that all acts and claims of acts or resolutions repugnant hereto be, and the same are hereby repealed.
Sec. 13. Whereas many inconveniences have been experienced by the leases of the Catawba Indians, as well as by the Indians themselves,, under the operation of an act passed in the year of our Lord 1808, which act ordains that two shall at any time be made for such lease, or any part thereof, for more than three years rent in advance, and that no payments shall be deemed or held to be valid unless the same be made conformably to this act, and receipts therefor given by such of the chiefs of the nation as usually transact their affairs, and by a majority of the said superintendents.
“Sec. 14. And it be further enacted, that no payments shall be hereafter made for such lease, or any part thereof, for more than seven years in advance, and that no payment shall be held or deemed valid; unless receipt therefor be given and attested by one of the said superintendents.
“Sec. 15. And it be further enacted, that a lease for three years or 99 years of the said Catawba lands shall be, and the same is hereby, declared to be a qualification equivalent to a free hold in all cases where a free hold is not required by the constitution of this state or of the United States.
In 1815 an act was passed by the legislature of South Carolina entitled “An Act to Authorize and Empower the Superintendent of the Catawba Indians to Institute Actions for Trespass on Their Lands, and For Other Purposes Therein Mentioned.”
“Whereas certain persons now hold possession of the lands belonging to the Catawba Indians, without obtaining a lease for the same from the headmen or chiefs of the nation, agreeable to the act of assembly passed the 15th day of December, 1808, empowering the said Indians to lease the lands vested in then, and there is no power or authority in any person or persons to institute an action or actions at law to put such persons as hold their lands without a lease out of the possession thereof: For remedy whereof, be it enacted by the honorable Senate and House of Representatives, now met and setting in general assembly, and by te authority of the same, that from and immediately after the passing of this act, the superintendent now appointed, or that may be hereafter appointed, by the governor of the state, or a majority of them shall be, and are hereby authorized and empowered, in their own names or in the names of a majority of them, as agents, to commence and prosecute, an action or actions of trespass to try titles to the lands claimed by and vested in the said Indians, that is now or may hereafter be held in possession by any person or persons, without a lease from the headmen or chief of said nation of Indians, in pursuance of the act of the general assembly aforesaid, and also in like manner an action or actions of quare clausum fregit, for trespass committed on said lands; and also actions for injuries done to the personal property of said Indians; and the damage recovered in the actions to try titles, or in any actions to quare clausum fregit, or action for injury done to the personal property of said Indians, shall be collected by the said superintendent for the benefit of said Indians.
“And it be enacted by the authority aforesaid, that the said superintendents, or a majority of them, shall have power I the same manner, as they are authorized to bring actions, to make distress for arrearages of rent now due, or that may hereafter become due, or bring an action or actions to recover the same in any court having jurisdiction.
“And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that this shall be deemed and taken as a public act, and judicially noticed as such without special pleading, and liberally construed for carrying the purposes aforesaid into effect.”
“Catawba Indians – For the removal of the Catawba Tribe of Indians now in the limits of the State of North Carolina to the Indian Country west of the Mississippi, with the consent of said tribe, under the direction of the President of the United States, a sum not exceeding $5,000: provided no portion of this sum shall be expended for the purpose of removing said Indians until the President shall first obtain a home for them. Amongst some of the tribes west of the Mississippi River, with their consent, and without any charge upon the government.”
In a letter dated November 13th, 1848, John C. Mullay, a clerk in this office, forwarded a letter, dated Oct. 6, 1848, from one George T. Mason, enclosing a request by the Chief of the Catawbas, a memorial of said tribe of Indians at Quallatown, Haywood County, N. C., dated Oct. 4, 1848, on file in this office (misc. M., 280), addressed to the President, signed by William Morrison, chief, and following heads of each Catawba family, viz., Phillip Kegg, Lewis Stevens, John Heart, John Scott, Franklin Kenty, Antony George, David Harris, Thomas Stevens, John Harris, Jesse Harris, Nancey George, Sally Harris, Polly Redhead, Patsey George, Harriet Stevens, Betsy Heart, Cynthia Kegg, Patsy George, Jr., Mary Ayres, Margaret Ayres, Betsey Ayres, Susan Kegg, Eliza Kanty, Frankie Brown, Jinny Joe, Jenny Ayres, Rachel Brown, Easther Scott, Katy Joe, Sally Redhead, William George, Peggy Kanty, Rosa Ayres, Becky George, Polly Harris, Elizabeth Brown, Polly Harris [same name is listed twice], Mary Joe, Allen Harris, Mary Harris and James Kegg, comprising 42 persons, all of whom signed by mark, in the presence of Abram Sellers, George T. Mason., and John T. Gibson, requesting the appointment of a reliable and trustworthy business man to superintend their removal west.
In transmitting said memorial Mr. Mullay speaks of him, after several personal interviews held with said chiefs, as an intelligent, respectable Catawba, and of the preference of his people to a home with the Chickasaw Indians West, who, he stated, had at one time given the Catawba an invitation to settle among them. 
In this annual report of this office for the year 1849 (Doc. 5, p. 949), it is stated that – 
“The department has not yet succeeded in finding a suitable home west of the Mississippi for the Catawba Indians residing in North Carolina. They prefer a residence among the Chickasaws, to whom application was made to receive them, but to which there has been no final answer. Proper efforts will be made carry out, next season, if practicable, the Law of July 29th, 1848, providing for their removal.” 
Agent A.M. M. Upshaw was instructed, Nov. 6, 1848 (Chickasaw Letter Book C., p. 32), to ascertain whether or not the Chickasaw Nation would receive the Catawba on the terms prescribed by the law. 
In said instructions it was intimidated that the Department knew very little about the Catawbas, or of their origins, or of their language and customs, or how they got from their home in South Carolina to Haywood County, in North Carolina. They were believed however, to be a quiet and well-disposed people, numbering in all about 80 souls. From their location and supposed former alliances with the Cherokees, the impression was established that they would prefer a residence with the Cherokees, and steps were taken to ascertain whether or not they would receive the Catawbas on the terms prescribed. Information was subsequently obtained that they would probably object to going to the Cherokees, and expressed a preference to take homes with the Chickasaws. Agent Upshaw responded, on the 8th of January, 1849, that the Chickasaws would probably receive the Catawbas, but that their council must first act on the subject. (Chickasaw U. 55) It does not appear however, that the Chickasaw Council ever took action on the case. 
Subsequently, it appears that the Choctaw Council passed an act entitled “An Act Naturalizing Certain Persons Therein” which was approved November 3rd, 1893, (Choctaw Laws, 1869, p. 124) as follows, viz.:
Sec. 11. Be it enacted by the general counsel of the Choctaw Nation assembled, that William Morrison, Thomas Morrison, Sarah Jane Morrison, Molly Redhead, Betsey Heart, Rebeccah Heart, Phillip Keggo, and the infant child of Phillip Keggo, Rosey Ayres, Betsey Ayers, Julian Ayres, Mary Ayres, Sophonia Ayres, and Sally Ayres be, and they are hereby declared, naturalized citizens of the Choctaw Nation, invested with all the rights, privileges, and immunities of Naturalized citizens of the same.”
Although there is nothing in the act to show the nationality of these persons, you will see by a comparison of the names attached to the aforementioned memorial of the Catawbas, that they are the same persons. This opinion is corroborated by a subsequent Act of said council, approved November 12, 1856 (Choctaw Laws, 1869, p. 153) entitled, “An Act Giving Greater privileges to the Catawbas hereby naturalized).”
Sec. 18. Be it enacted by the General Counsel of the Choctaw Nation Assembled, that the Catawbas who were made citizens of this nation by a special act of Session XX, section11, of 1853, between the Choctaws and the government of the United States.”
The Hon. James L. Orr, of Anderson, S. C., and Representatives in Congress, having called the attention of this office to the fact that a remnant of the Catawba Tribe of Indians numbering about 70 persons residing within his state, expressed a desire to become affiliated with the Choctaw people; that they possessed a small reservation in South Carolina that they were willing to sell, and that the proceeds in connection with a contemplated appropriation for their benefit of the legislature of the state, would supply them with a fund amounting, as was presumed, , to about $5,000 sufficient, if properly applied,, to enable them to make the improvements necessary to a successful commencement of cultivating the soil, and of other pursuits incident to civilized life. This office instructed C. W. Dean, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, in a letter addressed to him at Ft. Smith, Arkansas, dated January 6, 1857 to direct agent D. H. Cooper to lay the subject before the Choctaw nation in council assembled or otherwise, as he might deem most judicious, inviting attention to the generosity and hospitality of the Choctaws manifested in the reception and kind treatment of a small party of their fellow Catawbas, then living among the Choctaws which had inspired them with confidence in that people, and with an anxious desire the same privileges with their brethren who had gone before them in the same enterprise.
He was advised that in the Indians appropriations act approved July 31st 1854, (10 stat. 1, p. 316), the following item appears, viz. – 
“For the reappropriation for expenses of the removal of the Catawba Indians to the west of the Mississippi River, and of settling, and subsisting them one year in their new homes, provided that a home shall first be obtained for them, and that they shall be removed only with their own consent to receive this small band of Catawba’s, and, and would permit them to reside within the limits of their territory.
Superintendent Dean reported on this matter March 20, 1857, as follows:
“It is the opinion of Agent Cooper, in which opinion I concur, that nothing can be effected as to the procurement of homes for these Indians among the Choctaws until the next session of the general counsel of the nation, and I believe it does not again convene until next Autumn.”
“I was in hope, indeed, from inquiry, was almost satisfied – that the act of the Choctaw Counsel passed at the Choctaw Counsel passed at the session of 1853, conferring the privilege of citizenship upon certain Catawba Indians that emigrated and were permitted to settle in the Choctaw Country in that year, was made general and comprehensive in its terms, so as to include all the Catawba Indians that might be disposed to cast their lot with them, as there seemed at the time to be an understanding that the greater portion, if not all the residue of the tribe was desirous of emigrating to the Choctaw Country.; but I have recently procured a copy of the act of 1853 (a transcript of which is in file in the Indian Bureau), and perceive it is limited and specific in its terms, including only those that emigrated in that year.
I am further inclined in the belief that the Choctaws were disappointed that the Catawbas that emigrated at the time mentioned were unable to turn over to the treasury of the nation a certain sum of money that it was supposed that they were to receive from the United States for their removal and temporary subsistence, but which amount, instead of being paid into the treasury of the Choctaws, reverted instead to the surplus fund of the treasury of the united States. As thee Catawbas were invested with the full privileges of the citizens of the Choctaw Nation and became equal participants in the distribution of their annuities, etc., it seems not unreasonable that any fund set apart for the use of these Catawba’s should have become a portion of the common stock for common good, and such, I learn, was the general expectation of all parties when the act of 1853 was passed.
Agent Cooper gives it as his opinion that on assembling of the National Council of the Choctaws and Chickasaws, on the payment of a reasonable sum thereof by the United States or by the State of South Carolina.
Under these circumstances, and as from the tenor of your letter of January 6, the exact provision that may be made for the removal and settlement of the Catawbas of South Carolina appears as yet to be indefinite. And unascertained. I beg permission to suggest that the interim that must occur before further action can be had with the tribes be occupied in adjusting definitely and with precision what amount will be under control of the department so secure the purposes indicated, so that a proposition determinant in its character may be ready to be laid before the tribes whose cooperation is asked in the premises.
“From Agent Cooper's letter to me on the subject, I beg leave to offer the following extant, and to ask for it the consideration of the department:
“I have but little doubt the remnant of the Catawba Indians can be accommodated in the Choctaw and Chickasaw Country, upon the payment by the United States or the State of South Carolina, of a reasonable consideration to the Choctaws and Chickasaws, both of which tribes have an interest direct in all sums of money that might be realized from the use or sale of the country embraced within their boundaries.
No action appears to have been taken by the government or any of the Indians on the question of their removal to the Choctaw or any other Indian Country until 1872 when Hon. J. C. Harper, of the House of Representatives from Georgia, brought to the attention of this office the question of the removal of certain Indians in North Carolina and Georgia. Presuming they were Cherokee, this office requested him on the 13th of June, 1872, to furnish a list of the names and ages of said Indians. In reporting the names, Mr. Joseph McDowell, of Fairmount, Georgia, under date of October 1872 (Misc. M., 229), stated that the Indians referred to, and asking relief of the government, were Catawba Indians, and 84 in number, viz:
Those italicized desired permission of the president to settle in the Indian Territory, all of whom Mr. McDowell states were good and loyal people, and that if any Indian deserved assistance from the government these Indians did: that their grandfathers on both sides the government in the War for Independence, and that their names were on the muster rolls in the War Department.
William Guy, of Granville County, Georgia, and Simon Jeffers, of Belleville Virginia, Catawba Indians, served five years in the Army and were honorably discharged, and these 84 persons were their descendants.
‘1. Buckner Guy, 80; 2. Lucinda Anderson, his daughter, wife of Wm. Anderson, a Cherokee, 60; 3. Polly Guy, 50; 4. James Guy, 55; 5. Clark Guy, 53; 6. Judy or Judith Guy, 48; 7. Silvey Guy 48; 31; 8. Elizabeth Guy, 20; 9. George Guy, 19; 10. Amanda Anderson, 23; 11. Nathaniel Anderson, 23; 12. Mary Anderson, 21; 13. Eliza Anderson, 21; 14. Nancy Anderson, 19; 15. Corneilia Anderson, 18; 16. William Washington Guy, 30; 17. Albert A. Guy, 28; 18. Amanda Guy, 26; 19. Joseph M. Guy, 24; 20. Caroline T. Guy, 22; 21. Martha Guy, 25; 22. Alexander Guy, 21; 23. Sarah Guy, 18; 24. Geraldine Guy, 12; 25. George Guy, 11; 26. Henrietta Guy, 9; 26. Tennessee Guy, 7; 28. Ann Guy, 14; 29. Rosa Guy, 12; 30. McClelland Guy, 8; 31. U. S. Grant Guy or Wolford Grant Guy, 7; 32. Louisa Guy, 8; 33. John Guy, 6; 34. Johnson Guy, 11; 35. William Guy, 6; 36.  Katy Guy, 2; 37. Peter Guy, 40; 38. Tabatha Steward, 50; 39. Viney Guy, 48; 40. Ann Gijeon, 46; 41. Katharine Guy, 45; 42. Rachel Guy, 43; 43. June Bingham, married a White man; 41; 44. George Guy, 28; 45. Thomas Guy, 14; 46. John Guy, 12; 47. Henrietta Guy, 8; 48. Mary Guy, 23; 49. Newton Guy, 16; 50. Croline Guy, 14; 51. William Guy, 12; 52. Ann Guy 10; 53. Daniel Guy, 35; 54. Mary Guy, 45; 55. Charles Guy, 18; 56. George Guy, 16; 57. Adaline Guy, 14; 58. Brag Guy, 12; 59. Judy Guy, daughter of Simon Jeffers;  80; 60. Edmond Guy, 80; 61. Willis Guy, 61; 62. Mahala Guy, 56; 63. George W. Guy, 36; 64. Mary S. Guy, 33; 65. Andrew T. Guy, 31; 66. Martha Bingham, married a White man; 29; 67. Amanda M. McDowell, married a White man, 27; 68. Joshua R. Guy, 25; 69. Amanda T. Guy; White wife of Joshua R. Guy, 24; 70. Erastus M. Guy, 3; 71. Mary C. Guy, White wife of A. T. Guy, 28; 72. Henry H, Guy, 4; 73. Emma F. Guy, 2; 74. Ruth M. Guy, 21; 75. Sarah A. Guy; 19; 76. Isaac H. Guy, 17; 77. Millard F. Guy, 16; 78. Lilly R. Guy; 12; 79. Samuel H. McDowell, son of Amanda M,. # 67, 5; 80. Eli H. H. J. McDowell, son of Amanda M., # 67, 1; 81. Elizabeth Guy, wife of G. W. Guy, White, 30; 82. Laurado Guy; 4; 83. Caly Lee Guy, 2; 84. Charles Bingham, son of Martha # 66, 3.
As these Indians were Catawba's and not Cherokees, Mr. McDowell was informed Oct. 22, 1872, that they could not receive any of the benefits arising from the Cherokee removal fund of 1848.
A schedule of seventy persons very similar to the forgoing list, each containing many of the same names was forwarded to the office by Mr. McDowell, Oct. 19, 1869 (Misc. M. 805), but for the same reasons, no relief could be granted them at that time more than in 1872.
Another interval of 15 years or more lapsed before the subject was again presented to the department.
On the 21st of November, 1887, James Kegg, of Whittier North Carolina, in addressing the Secretary of the interior (No. 31383), made the following statement, viz.:
Many years ago, his people, the Catawba Indians, leased the land they owned in South Carolina and became a wondering tribe, without homes for their wives and children. They made application he states, to the Cherokees of North Carolina, for homes upon their land and made over to them all their leased lands in South Carolina in consideration of their adoption into their tribe; that about 500 were so adopted and have been identified as such; that some 300 of them were removed west under the Cherokee Treaty of New Echota, made December 29th, 1835, leaving a few living among the Cherokees as Cherokee citizens and a small portion remaining in South Carolina “upon a section of land which they owned and was not leased out for a term of years, upon which they now reside.” Those Catawbas remaining in South Carolina, Mr. Kegg states, had no interest whatever in the lands which were leased out by those who became Cherokees by adoption, and he wished to ascertain whether or not the United States gave its consent to the Catawbas to lease out their lands to the State of South Carolina or to her citizens, and if so, upon what terms and the length of term said leases ran.
Without endorsing the statements herein made by Mr. Kegg. He was informed on the 7th of April, 1888, that the Catawba Indians held their lands in South Carolina under agreements or arrangements made with that state over which the Federal Government had no control or jurisdiction. He was then cited to the laws of South Carolina, a set forth I Brevard's Digest, vol 1., titled “Indians”, and to the volume in colonial law herein cited, and for further information respecting the history and previous status of the lands and leases he was referring to the Secretary of State of the State of South Carolina.
There have been frequent communications from and concerning the Catawba Indians since 1888, but none involving of furnishing any new facts of information concerning the history or status of these Indians or their lands.
The last communication on the subject was a letter dated Jan 9th, 1896, from Senator H. M. Teller, including one from P. H. Head (who had been furnished a copy of office letter to Senator Teller dated Feb.13, 1890, giving the status given the status of their lands in South Carolina as above set forth), a Catawba Indian, of Sanford, Colo., submitting a petition purporting to have been signed by himself and 25 others, embracing six families, Catawba Indians, who claim to have once resided in South Carolina, but who are no longer recognized by said state, and ask to be united with the Indians now living on the Uintah Reservation in Utah, and to be recognized by the government as members of the Ute Tribe, receiving and enjoying in common with them all the rights and privileges of Utes and the protection of the government. In said letter Mr. Head intimated that this petition would be followed by another signed by the said Ute Indians, which however, has not yet been received in this office.
Senator Teller, in submitting said petition, requested that it receive due attention and that he be advised as to what steps were necessary to have such change effected.
He was informed on the 16th of January, 1896, on the return of said petition, that it was now the policy of the government to abolish the tribal relations of the Indians as fast as possible, and to settle each Indian upon a separate tract of land that he can call his own to the end that we may become self-supporting and independent of government bounty. It would not be in keeping with that policy to gather up people who happen to have more or less people who happen to have Indian blood in their veins and were living among the Whites separate and apart from Indian communities and incorporate them into a tribe and place them upon an Indian Reservation. A copy of the General Allotment Act of 1887, and the Amendatory Act of 1891, with a copy of the rules and regulations indicating the manner of procedure to obtain an allotment of lands upon the public domain under the fourth section of said act were sent to said petitioners for the information as the said section wisely provided for Indians who were not living upon any reservation at the date of the passage of said act, or for whose tribe no reservation of land had been created by allowing them to apply for and to secure to themselves land upon the public domain whether surveyed or unservayed.
With respect to incorporation into the Ute Tribe of Indians occupying the Uintah Reservation, Senator Teller was advised that where there are no specific treaty stipulations given with any given tribe touching such matters, as is the case with the Ute Indians, the usual course to pursue is to obtain the consent of the tribe into which an Indian desires adoption, and then have such adoption approved by this office and the Secretary of the Interior. Any such consent must be procured under the eye of the agent and should bear his certificate to the effect that the action of the Indians in adopting such Indian represented the wishes of the tribe and was taken in open council. This, briefly, would be the proper course to pursue in order to obtain adoption into an Indian tribe.
Having furnished tis full and complete history of the Catawbas, as far as the same is disclosed is disclosed from the files and records of this office and other sources, you will see just what lands these Indians held and now hold in South Carolina. I know of no land that they own in their tribal capacity as Catawbas in North Carolina. I know of no reason why these individual Indians may not take up lands in severalty under the fourth section of the act of 1887 aforesaid. I do not think it would be practicable or wise to ask the President to withhold from public settlement the lands ceded by the Kiowa and Comanche Indians by their last agreement, when that agreement is ratified by Congress, until such Indians had first taken allotments thereon. They should conform to the act of 1887, as all the other Indians in like condition have to do.
Your attention is particularly invited to the views of this office in office letter of January 16th, 1896, herein referred to with respect to the policy that should be adopted respecting the Catawba Indians.
This memorial is herewith returned.
Very respectfully,
D. M. Browning
R. V. Belt, Esq.
1314 Tenth Street NW, City
It’s odd they mentioned the Comanche/Kiowa lands. No one ever mentioned anything about that to me before. I can’t help but recall my gret grandpa leased land from the Kiowa Agency for cattle raising at the beginning of the 20th century (293). Per IPP, they lived in either Leflore Co or Sequoyah County in E Ok – Leflore County is where some Catawba settled (294). Later my family moved to the Chickasaw Nation. Some Catawba were also said to have settled there (295). Family story says they started to sign up for Dawes Rolls, but they got upset at something and they never signed up. (296) Was the above document what upset them? This sure is a lot of coincidences.
I have spent years trying to discover who our ancestors were, always thinking they were Cherokee. But my research has lead me more towards the Catawba than the Cherokee. I didn’t expect that.
Lastly I'd like to reassert a paragraph, a direct quote from the above document -- we didn't have a chance:
I have to say that it is the policy of the government to abolish the tribal relationship of the Indians as fast as possible, and to settle each Indian upon a separate tract of land that he can call his own, to the end that he may become self-supporting and independent of government bounty. It would not be in keeping with this policy, I think, to gather up people who happen to have more or less Indian blood in their veins and are living among the Whites, separate and apart from Indian communities, and incorporate them into a tribe and place them upon an Indian Reservation.
291. Congressional Document; The Catawba Tribe of Indians, 54th Congress, 2nd session, Doc. 144, February 23rd, 1897
292. ; Also from the book., “Finding Our Indian Blood”; Vance Hawkins; © 2013  Bluewater Publishing
294. Indian Pioneer Papers; ; “The Indian-Pioneer Papers oral history collection spans from 1861 to 1936. It includes typescripts of interviews conducted during the 1930s by government workers with thousands of Oklahomans regarding the settlement of Oklahoma and Indian territories, as well as the condition and conduct of life there. Consisting of approximately 80,000 entries, the index to this collection may be accessed via personal name, place name, or subject.” Interview is also found in my book, “Finding Our Indian Blood”. © 2013, Bluewater Publishing.
295. “The Catawba Indians, People of the River”; Douglas Summers Brown; © 1966 and publication by University of South Carolina Press
296. “Finding Our Indian Blood”, Vance Hawkins, © Bluewater Publishing, 2013

Catawba -- Saponi -- Melungeon; Ch. 13: The Sun Rises in the East, and Sets in the West

Pockets in the East -- Indian Communities East of the Mississippi, 1948; 
per a Report by the Smithsonian Institute
We have just dispelled the lies that the Melungeons were of Portuguese ancestry for fear of the Jim Crow Laws. I was yelping for joy, as I knew this was the exact result you would expect if the original Melungeons were a small band of American Indian, who were dying out. This small remnant community married with Caucasians and Africans, to produce the present population of mixed blood people.
But then they had assumed the straight male line or straight female line would tell them about the Melungeons. However, it tells them only of the ancestry of the LAST male and the last female of the genealogical line. Since ALL of those tested had European surnames, it told of the original Caucasian branch of these families. Surnames tell us of our male line as well. My last name is Hawkins, so my y-chromosomal DNA test, I'd expect, would show my family was English.  Lo and behold, it did! We go back to Kent in the southeastern corner of England.  My Hawkins’ were Saxons. My mitochondrial DNA goes back to my mother's mother's, mother's . . . ad infinitum, mother. Well my Melungeon blood goes through my father, so Mama’s mtDNA would never go back to them. Turns out it goes back to Scandinavia. And the Vikings left a big footprint in England, Ireland. Scotland, and Wales, so that's understandable. The two best known DNA tests won't help me discover my Melungeon ancestors one iota.
Let me remind you about what the Smithsonian Institute said several generations ago. years back. They thought the Melungeons were JUST AS INDIAN as the state recognized tribes of today's Virginia and the Carolinas. I will quote those passages about the Eastern Siouan and some other remnant tribes found in the East, especially in Virginia and the Carolinas. (258)
Annual Report, Smithsonian Institute, 1948; Surviving Indian Groups (258)
This was a report of the remaining Indian groups in the East in 1948. Some of these groups were Siouan and part of the old Yesaw/Esaw Nation. They are the people about which this book covers. Here is what was said about these Siouan groups.
Amherst County Issues
This group of about 500 or 600 mixed blood is located in the central part of Amherst County about 4 or 5 miles west of the county seat. The principle settlements are on Bear Mountain and Tobacco Row Mountain in the Blue Ridge. At the extreme western end of the county is another mixed group of similar origin derived from Indian, White, and in some localities, Negro blood.
Rockbridge County Brown People
To the northwest of Amherst County is Rockbridge County is a small group located on Irish Creek, not more than twelve miles east of Lexington, Virginia, and called Brown People. Their number is estimated at 300, and they show a mixture of White, Indian, and occasionally Negro blood. Like the Issues of Amherst County, they are a group apart from both Whites and Negroes.
Melungeons or Ramps . . .
The Virginia Melungeons are found on the mountain ridges such as Copper Ridge, Clinch Ridge and Powell Valley in Lee and Scott Counties, in the vicinity of Coeburn and Norton in Wise County, near Damascus in Washington County, and in the western Dismal area of Giles County. No estimate of their numbers is available but they probably amount to several thousand. They show dark skin with straight or curly black hair and high cheek bones. The chief family names of Melungeons in the area are Bolen, Collins, Gibson or Gipson, Freeman, Goins, and Sexton.
Thus in 1948 the Melungeons were considered one of the “Surviving Indian Groups” of Virginia! The town of Coeburn, mentioned above as a place the Melungeons settled, was originally named “Gist's Station” – it was named after one of my direct ancestors, Nathaniel Gist. This is NOT the famous Nathaniel Gist, but it is his first cousin of the same name.
But instead of being proud of our American Indian heritage, too many researchers have added muddy waters. dirtying them until you cannot see what lies beneath, claiming our heritage is everything BUT American Indian. Remember Occam’s Razor, add nothing but what is necessary to explain a thing.
Siouan or Croatan
This group is said to number upwards of 16,000 persons . . . Physical measurements indicate the presence of Indian, White, and Negro types. There is said to be a tendency for the lighter individuals and families to hold aloof from the darker ones just as in the case of the Nanticokes or Narangassettes. They are found in greatest concentration in Robison County, but occur in considerable numbers in the nearby counties of Bladen, Columbus, Cumberland, Harnet, Sampson, and Scotland. Across the border in South Carolina they occur in Marlboro, Dillon, Marion, and Horry Counties.
The family names of these people are Allen, Bennet, Berry, Bridger, Brooks, Brown, Bulter, Chapman, Chaves, Coleman, Cooper, Cumbo, Dare, Graham, Harris, Harvie, Howe, Johnson, Jones, Lassie, Little, Locklear, Lowrie, Lucas, Martin, Oxendine, Paine, Patterson, Powell, Sampson, Scott, Smith, Stevens, Taylor, Vickers, White, Willes, Wilkenson, Wood, and Wright. . . .
The state [North Carolina] has recognized their special status and they are endowed with a special school system from both Whites and Negroes.
Miscellaneous Indians of North Carolina
In northeastern Person County on the Virginia border in located a group . . . who number about 400 persons. They also occur just across the state line in Halifax County, Virginia, around Christie and Virginilana. The chief family names are Coleman, Epps, Martin, Shephard, Stewart and Talley. The state of North Carolina maintains an Indian School for these people . . . The Person County Indians may be descendants of a small band of Saponi who, according to early census reports, inhabited Granville County, North Carolina (from which Person County was later set off.).
In northeastern North Carolina, in Dare and Hyde Counties, and in Roanoke Island are to be found a few Indian remnants of the Machapunga Tribe mixed with White and Negro blood. Their family names are Pugh, Daniels, Berry and Prescott.
Somewhat west of Person County in Rockingham County, the census record of 1930 reports a considerable number of Indians. The identity of this group is not known.
[p. 422] Four major geographical groups may be distinguished, namely i.] Catawba, on the northern border; ii.] Croatans, also on the northern border; iii.] Red Bones and other groups on the capital; and iv.] Brass Ankles in coastal areas. Altogether these groups may total over 10,000 persons . . . They have lost almost everything that would distinguish them as Indian except their physical appearance. The latter is of course greatly modified by mixture with White and Negro blood, yet these people are recognized locally as being distinct from both White’s and Negroes. They have their own mixed blood schools . . .
The chief family names among these mixed-bloods are Boone, Braveboy, Bunch, Chavis, Creek, Driggers, Goins, Harmon, Russell, Scott, Swett and Williams.
The remnants of this tribe are located at a small settlement on the banks of the Catawba River in York County, about 9 miles southeast of Rockhill, the county seat . . . The 1930 census returns 159 Indians in York County. Their blood seems to be mostly a mixture of White and Indian.
Conclusion About Melungeon Indians
Everyone of the groups of families on the list above in Virginia and the Carolinas, is state recognized . . . except the Melungeons. We are no different than they are, and we show family ties back to both the Lumbee and various Siouan groups along the Virginia/North Carolina border. While all the other descendants of the outlying bands of the Catawba were contacting state governments trying to get state recognition as Indian, the Melungeons were arguing over whether they were Portuguese, Turkish or Jewish!
State Recognized Siouan Tribes in Virginia and the Carolinas, as of January 2018 (259)
Here is a list of Siouan tribes recognized by the states of Virginia and the Carolina’s, found on a website online I hope the list is accurate and all inclusive. There has been a sort of a revival of the people being able to access their culture. West of the Mississippi River, I am afraid just the opposite has happened. 
Monacan Indian Nation --
CURRENT NEWS! As I write, I hear congress just passed a bill making the Monacan federally recognized. I don’t know if that man sitting in the White House has signed it yet or not, though. 
North Carolina
Haliwa Saponi Tribe --
Occaneechi Band of Saponi Indians
Sappony Tribe
Waccamaw Siouan Development Association
South Carolina
Pee Dee Tribe of South Carolina
If I have left anyone out, I apologize. Knowing me as I do, I probably did.
Not Everyone in the East has Legal Status
The group left out, who doesn’t have legal status as “Native American”, are those people associated with the Melungeons of southwestern Virginia, northeastern Tennessee, and eastern Kentucky. That is because of all the people who have mistakenly called our ancestors “Portuguese adventurers”. It will take a great deal of time to undo the damage those stories have done. A good friend told me about a newspaper article dated 1901.  Many Melungeon families moved from southwestern Virginia and northeastern Tennessee to Magoffin County, in eastern Kentucky. This newspaper article is about them. It confirms the status of these people of being of Catawban/Saponi heritage. Here are a few excerpts from it.
A correspondent writing from Salyersville, Ky says:
It is not generally known there are Indians scattered all over the mountains of Kentucky, but in nearly every county in the eastern section may be found families named Cole, Perkens, Mullins or Sizemore, many in some-way related to “Old Billie” Cole, a Catawba Chief, who came here from North Carolina and settled in Floyd County nearly a century ago. (260)
So even as late as 1901 some groups still knew they came from the Catawba in North Carolina.
The Sun Sets in the West
A Few came West Early, Immigration to Arkansas of the “Lungens”     
The first occasion where the term "Melungeon" occurs that anyone has discovered at this point is from “A History of Baxter County, Arkansas” by Mary Anne  Mesick. It was written after the fact. In reality the term "Melungeon" had already been used by the time the author uses it in this case, but she speaks of an earlier time when the term "Lungen" was used. For this reason, I am mentioning it first. My family also immigrated to Arkansas at an early date. A second time the word is found is in the minutes of Stoney Creek Primitive Baptist Church. My family also attended that church, and our names are mentioned quite a lot in those church minutes.
p. 4. In this chapter, the author lists several Indian tribes that at one time lived in Baxter County, and lists several that are not tribes at all. Others NEVER lived in Baxter County, or if they did it was long before contact with Europeans. Some tribes that were there are Osage, Delaware, Shawnee, Kickapoo, and Cherokee, the last four arriving early in the 19th century. And she does list them. (261)
p. 5. She mentions that while Arkansas was still claimed by Spain, the Spanish encouraged the displaced American Tribes to settle on their lands in Missouri and Arkansas. She speaks of the Cherokees living along the White River. Now these displaced tribes settled on what the Osages had considered their hunting grounds. Warfare was inevitable. After a few years this became American soil. Ms. Messick speaks of a Major Jacob Wolfe who in 1810 established a Trading Post and Indian Agency in Baxter County, saying he is called the father of Baxter County. (262)
p. 6. Now we come to the pages that mention the “Lungeons”. She says “. . . another Jacob came up White River in search of fortune and adventure.” She calls him a son of Old Erin (Ireland), lately of McMinnville, Tennessee. He and a man named McDonald, four slaves, and four other men poled a flat boat up White River until they found a spot to their liking. The exact spot of their first trading post, which has been lost. Then the author states “in the unpublished manuscript of my late father, Herbert A. Messick, he writes this concerning his great grandfather Herbert A. Mooney . . .” We now know the origin of this source. A man was telling family stories, and they were passed down from earlier generations. (263)
In the next paragraph she continues; “By the fall they had constructed one log building, for the store and two cabins for living quarters. The four men who had come with Mooney were men of Mystery, referred to by old timers who knew of them as “Lungeons”. They were neither Negro nor Indian and in later years Jacob Mooney was ostracized for living with these “foreigners.” (264)
I so wish the author had given her father’s exact words from his unpublished manuscript. One can easily twist the meaning by changing a word or two, something the person paraphrased that can be taken in a different light than intended. She places the word “foreigner” in parenthesis. She assumes them of Mediterranean heritage, saying; “Could these men have been Melungeons – the mysterious people of the hills of Tennessee who have recently been identified as being Mediterranean’s possibly of Jewish lineage, and who lived in America prior to Columbus’s discovery of the “New World”? How can anyone think these things? Unbelievable.
She continues with Mooney and McDonald (one of the items they took with them to Arkansas was a Whiskey still – moonshine is also indigenous to Arkansas) creating their own whiskey from local ingredients. "Whisky" suggests to me a Scottish or Irish ancestry, not Mediterranean. They soon returned to Tennessee. Both men later joined Ol’ Hickory (Andrew Jackson) during the War of 1812, serving near New Orleans. She says that after nine years, Mooney returned to Arkansas with a wife and four children. 
At the bottom of page 4, she speaks of Mooney’s return to a place now called “Mooney’s Landing”. She mentions going up White River to a place called “Bates Town”. That’s got to be Batesville, in Independence County. In the record of my William Wayland, it mentions him being an overseer to a road in 1819 going to White River at Batesville. William Wayland is one of my g-g-g-grandpa’s. His parents attended Stony Creek Primitive Baptist Church. He was a son of Nevil Sr. and Keziah (Gibson) Wayland.
Friday, November 26, 1819, William Wayland is appointed overseer of the second road of said township . . . [note: it is talking about Strawberry River Township -- about 20 miles from Batesville. Batesville is on the banks of the White River] . . . (265)
Tuesday, January 15th, 1822 -- P 13, Samuel Crow is appointed overseer of the road leading from Donaldsville to White River [note: there is no Donaldsville in that area -- must have been a short-lived community] . . . in place of William Wayland . . . (266)
Since the events of this chapter of that book occurred in 1810, and it says he was gone 9 years, it seems to be saying he returned to Batesville about 1819 as well. William Wayland and this Jacob Mooney might well have bumped into one another near White River, near Batesville, but who can say? This was a scarcely settled country in 1819.
p. 7. Things get even more interesting. She says . . . Wolfe had performed several weddings for Mooney’s men and Quapaw Indian maidens.” Well, four of Mooney’s men were “Lungeons”. Had these “Lungeon” men married into the Quapaw Tribe? The Quapaw are a small Siouan tribe, indigenous to Arkansas north of the Caddo, west of the Chickasaw (when the Chickasaw were in Mississippi), and south of the Osage. They now reside in Northeastern Oklahoma.
Here is the second reference she makes to the “Lungeons”. She says “Mooney continued to commute between his wife in Tennessee and his trading post in Arkansas until his death in 1832. By the time he moved to Arkansas for good, his former slaves and the “Lungeon” men had died and most of their families had moved west with the other Indians . . . later, Jacob Mooney had lived near the Whiteville Church, and is buried there. When the cemetery was fenced, Mooney’s grave and the graves of the mixed bloods who lived with him were left outside.” (267)
Interesting it says the families of the Lungen men moved west with the other Indians. Are the "Lungens" the mixed bloods whose graves were left outside the fenced in cemetery? It says they were buried outside the consecrated grounds with the “mixed bloods”. It sounds as if some of these Lungeon men’s descendants had married those Quapaw women, and their descendants moved west with them. Remember the Quapaw were NOT the only tribe in Missouri and Northern Arkansas. So were the Delaware, Miama, Shawnee, and others. 
The Story of Hosea Morgan
I found an interesting document online. This article is about what happened to a Catawba man who moved to Indian Territory/Oklahoma and Arkansas. 
In 1834 Hosea Morgan was from Arkansas. He said he was Catawba, and he wanted to live in the Cherokee Nation, West, in Oklahoma. He was given a flat denial – NO! They said he looked Spanish but he said he was Catawba Indian. Remember most of the bands associated historically with the Catawba had been largely assimilated by the time of the French and Indian War 1756-1763 or the Revolution two decades later. There are records of Catawba serving in both conflicts. They were becoming more mixed-blood each generation. Unless they wanted to marry their cousins (and there were tribal taboos against that) they married either local Whites or Blacks. We are talking about a few hundred, maybe a thousand or so, survivors scattered over a dozen locations from Virginia to South Carolina, in the beginning. After several generations, their numbers grew larger as their blood quantum grew smaller. 
Go here -- . Log on as a guest and scroll dowm to “86. Native American Documents” and click on there. If you search for appropriate key words you will find the document below.
Image 4. Hosea Morgan Document


Aquohee Dist Apr. 3. 1834,
To the Gentlemen of the Delegation. 
I take the liberty to inform you that Hosea Morgan who kept my mill has had the field and houses assessed to him as an emigrant to the Arkansas. And Major Curry Gave the good will of it to a White man named Roland Terry.
I waited on Major Curry and stated the case to him and I had many witnesses Present to prove my right to the place and that the man who had the place assessed was no Citizen of the Nation nor had any right of claim whatever to enroll as a Cherokee.
The old man is supposed to be a Spaniard but calls himself a Catawba Indian. His wife is said to be Negro.
John Smith his X mark
Test -- E Jones
We the undersigned certify that a man named Hosea Morgan Having the appearance of a Spaniard but representing himself to be a Catawba Indian having spent many years among the Spaniards and having with him a Negro family, came into this District six or seven years ago or there abouts.
On his first arrival he applied to the Council for permission to reside in the Nation as a Citizen but was refused About two years ago Mr. Smith obtained a permit for him to attend his mill. But he has never made any pretentions to have any right or title to land or Citizenship in the Nation till he was received as an emigrant to the Arkansas.
Now we respectfully but earnestly protest against, persons having no Cherokee blood and possessing no sort of title in our country being allowed to alienate portions of the land in this way which we conceive to be utterly unlawful for our own acknowledged citizens to do.
Signed on behalf of a full meeting of the Citizens of the Dist.
Test. -- Situagi his X mark, Sweetwater his X mark, Peter his X mark 
Mr. Morgan asked permission to reside in the Cherokee Nation as a citizen, but was refused. (268)
The Treaty of Nation's Ford, 1840
The removals of the other southeastern tribes that had taken place throughout the 1830s, culminating in the Cherokee removal throughout the winter of 1838-1839 that became known as  the “Trail of Tears.” South Carolina decided they didn't want any Indians left in their state either. They decided to give them to North Carolina. Unfortunately, no one bothered to tell the North Carolinians, and they refused to take them in. This treaty is known as “The Treaty of Nation's Ford. I found this 1840 treaty between the state of South Carolina and the Catawba Nation.
A treaty entered into at the Nation's Ford Catawba between the chiefs and headmen of the Catawba Indians of the one part and the commissioners appointed by the legislature of South Carolina and acting under the commissioners from his excellency Patrick Noble, Esq., Governor and Commander in Chief of the State of South Carolina of the other part.
Article First – The chiefs and headmen of the Catawba Indians for themselves and the Nation. Hereby agree to ??? sell and convey to the state of South Carolina all their right title and interest to their boundary of land lying on both sides of the Catawba River and situate in the Districts of York and Lancaster and which are represented in a plat of survey made by Samuel Wiley, and dated the twenty-second day of February. One thousand seven hundred and sixty-four, and now on file in the office of the secretary of state.
Articles Second – The commissioners on their part engage in behalf of the state to furnish the Catawba Indians with a tract of land of the value of five thousand dollars, three hundred acres of which must be good, arable lands which must be purchased for their use in Haywood County, North Carolina, or in some other mountainous thinly populated region where the said Indians may desire.
Article Third – The commissioners further engage that the State shall pay the said Catawba Indians two thousand dollars annually for the term of ten years. The first payment to which is to be paid on their removal and on the first of January each and every year thereafter until the whole is paid. 
Please note they were selling 144,000 acres and would be returned an un-mentioned number of acres, three hundred acres of which had to be good land. Their new lands were to be “in the mountains”. (269)
Some Catawba agreed to live with the Cherokee in Haywood, North Carolina. Haywood County is the location of the Cherokee in Western North Carolina. The Catawbans were expected to live with their ancient enemy, the Cherokee. The fact that the North Carolinians were not informed that the South Carolinians were dumping the Catawba on their doorstep, didn't help things. This was a treaty between the state of South Carolina and the Catawba. Most of the Catawba living amongst the Cherokee quickly left. They lost their lands in South Carolina, but the land they were promised in North Carolina never materialized. They were left wondering about, looking for a place to stay. This state of affairs could not continue forever.
The Indian Appropriation Act of 1848
In 1848 some of the Catawba tried to come to Indian Territory per the U. S. government supplying money for that purpose at that time. Brown writes in “The Catawba Indians”, p. 323 “On July 29, 1848 the 73rd Congress appropriated $5,000 to defray the expense of the move [to Indian Territory].” Chief James Kegg wrote a letter to President James Polk at that time and said there were 42 Catawba families who wanted to use that appropriation to move west. He said (p 324) “We humbly beg his Excellency the President . . .to remove us west of the Miss[issippi] under the act of the late Congress.” (270) Still on page 324, Brown writes, “Whether the President ever saw the letter is problematical.” In the next paragraph Brown writes that the Cherokee were asked if the Catawba could live amongst them and it says: “The answer from John Ross and the Cherokee counsel was a firm NO. But before the reply was received, the Catawba themselves expressed a preference for living among the Western Chickasaws . . . [who] at one time had invited the Catawba to settle amongst them. Government representatives promptly opened up negotiations with the Chickasaws among whom – the agent was told, some of the Catawba’s descendants were already settled.” It continues to say: “The principal men of the tribe assured the agent that the Catawba would be welcome, but only the council had the right to invite them, officially. But when a Chickasaw Counsel meeting was held in February of 1849, the Catawba proposal was voted down. This change of sentiment was attributed to the sudden death of old Chief Albertson, a strong advocate of the Catawba’s.” (271) We have a substantial number of Catawba Indians with no land base and no home. Many on the rejected Cherokee rolls were in reality, Catawba mixed-bloods. 
Blumer continues to say neither Congress nor the Catawba were in a hurry to be removed. By the late 1850s they were just getting all the paperwork for removal to take place, but the Civil War erupted, and all eyes were focused elsewhere. Their eyes were refocused on Indian Territory only when in the 1890s or so Congress was talking about the Allotment Act, which would take away "excess" Indian lands. Mixed blood Catawban Indian peoples in the East, from the Atlantic to the Appalachians and beyond started wondering why they were never given any land in Oklahoma, lands they’d been promised decades earlier. (272)
In “Catawba Nation, Treasures in History,” by Thomas J. Blumer, (pp 52-53) he writes: “The Treaty of Nations Ford is a simple document. Article One conveyed the 144,000-acre reservation to the state of South Carolina. This article was of course, carried out with the full acquiescence of the Catawba. Article Two provided the Catawba with a new tract of land far removed from White settlements. Article Two, caught in a political vacuum between North and South Carolina, was never fulfilled. Article Three regarded payment for the 144,000 acre reservation. South Carolina never made proper payment and the debt remains unsettled.” (273)
He also talks of many Catawba who left the reservation, some to settle with the Eastern Cherokee, some just left for points unknown. No one knows how many Catawba left, or how many there were. People had been leaving the Catawba Reservation and assimilating, for years, for generations in fact.
Recall that by this time ALL members of ALL the bands began to call themselves “Catawba” rather that Esaw, or Wateree, or Sugaree, Pedee, Saponi, or other bands. They had for the most part, died out, are could no longer defend themselves, and simply became “citizen Indians” and assimilated into Caucasian culture where that was allowed. Still they all united under the banner of the Catawba Nation where possible, as well. Slavery (until 1717), disease (small pox epidemics @ 1697, 1728, 1737, 1759, and @ 1780, and others unknown epidemics during Spanish times), warfare (Tuscarora, Yamassee and other wars 1711-1717) and assimilation (post 1720) had all done their damage, and left pitifully small remnants scattered here and there, hardly to be remembered at all.
The “Western Catawba Indian Association” of the 1880s-1890s
Several years back, I exchanged several emails with Dr. Thomas Blumer , who was a well-known Catawba historian. He has since sadly, passed on. I emailed him family photos and our family stories. He became interested in us, and we emailed back and forth for a couple of years. He told me of an effort to form a “Western Catawba Indian Association” both in and near Fort Smith, Arkansas in the 1890s. By the 1890s we had left that area and we were living in the Chickasaw Nation. Still, he peaked my curiosity Chapman Milling said in “Red Carolinians” (274); By the Indian appropriation act of 1848, $5,000 was set aside to completely remove the Catawba to the Indian country west of the Mississippi. In November of 1848 the heads of forty-two families sent a petition to the Indian Office requesting to be allowed to be removed to the Chickasaw Nation. Nothing materialized because of this request, however. 
Eventually a few families went to live in the Choctaw Nation and in 1855 several Catawba were adopted into the Choctaw Nation. Muriel Hazel Wright (275) wrote “A Guide to the Indian Tribes of Oklahoma” in 1951. In that book, she chronicled a history of all the sixty-nine tribes that either came to Oklahoma, or are indigenous to the state. She was Choctaw herself (her grandfather was a former Principle Chief). She said of the Catawba — another group left the nation during the removal period. In 1897 they formed the Western Catawba Association at Fort Smith, Arkansas. She speaks of some who received Choctaw citizenship in 1853. Ms. Wright said of the Catawba who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma – The descendants of some of the Catawba who settled in the Choctaw Nation are now absorbed into the Indian population of Haskell and Le Flore Counties. The descendants of some of those who settled in the Creek and Cherokee Nations have been reported living southeast of Checotah in McIntosh County. The main portion of the tribe live in the Eastern part of York County, South Carolina. There are few Catawba in Oklahoma, and those are counted in the general Indian population of the state. They were last enumerated as a separate tribe in this region in 1896, and their total population in the Indian Territory being given as 132. The largest portion, or 78 lived in the Choctaw Nation, most of them in the region between the present cities of Stigler and Spiro. Seventeen of them gave Checotah, Creek Nation, as their post office, and 15 lived around Texanna, in the Southwestern part of the Cherokee Nation, now included in McIntosh County. In the same year (1896) there were 145 Catawba living in Arkansas, most of them in and around Greenwood and Barber. 
She adds (276) – In October 1848, William Morrison, chief of a band of Catawba living at Quallatown, Haywood County, North Carolina, addressed a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs asking for the appointment of a superintendent to remove his people to the Indian Territory . . . These people expressed their preference for settlement among the Chickasaw, but the Chickasaw council took no action on the subject. [authors note: this was the head of 42 families – another source says this was probably about 80 individuals. The Chickasaw as we have seen, did take action, and rejected the Catawba proposal in February 1848.] (254) In “Red Carolinians” Chapman J. Milling wrote the following (277) – "The Catawba Indian Association of Fort Smith, Arkansas," an organization having a membership of 257 persons, the alleged descendants of Catawba who went West under the act of 1848. The petitioners were distributed as follows in Arkansas and Indian Territory: Arkansas—Greenwood, 44, Barber, 42, Crow, 13, Oak Bower, 6, Fort Smith, 17; Indian Territory and Oklahoma - Checotah, 17, Jackson, 15, Star, 34, Panther, 22, Oak Lodge, 10, Redland, 4, Ramville, 2, Indianola, 3, Center, 4, Ward, 3, Sacred Heart, 1, Steigler, 2. The petition sets forth that these Catawba families had removed west, some as late as 1854, "journeying at their own expense to the country west of the Mississippi River, hoping and expecting to be there furnished with new homes..." Having never been assigned lands, they were "left stranded in that Territory and the neighboring states." They therefore prayed for relief. The government took the position that the petitioners were white men with a trace of Indian blood, and therefore not entitled to relief. The memorial indicates, however, that descendants of Catawba Indians existed in considerable numbers in the Southwest only 44 years ago. Although no Indians are today recorded as Catawba in the state of Oklahoma, there is little reasonable doubt that an appreciable amount of Catawba blood persists in the eastern section of that commonwealth. 
Milling also says in Red Carolinians “Having traced several distinct migrations to North Carolina, Virginia, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Utah, Colorado, we have thus seen that the Catawba Tribe is not so nearly extinct as was supposed and has been frequently asserted. It is true however that the only band having any semblance of tribal status is the remnant in South Carolina . . .” (277) I cannot help but think that had Congress acted, there might be a Catawba Tribe of Oklahoma, too. However, since these families have all scattered today, that is no longer possible. 
I suspect that, like the Sizemore’s, many of these families have forgotten their tribal origins, and think their ancestors were Cherokee. 
The Gentry and Lerblanche Families Arrived in Indian Territory, also about 1848
Here is a story of an extended Catawba Family that also moved to Indian Territory, about 1848, which is the same time as those other families mentioned above. 
I need to explain. There is a link at Oklahoma Historic Society called “Indian Pioneer Papers”. In the 1930s there was a project to try and have old-timers who remembered, what Indian Territory was like before statehood, in the days before there was any law. My great Uncle, Oscar Taylor Richey, wrote about our family. As we'll discover, these Gentry’s and Leblanche’s were mixed-blood Catawba. (278)
Willie Leblanche told a part of their story. The Leblanche and Gentry families had married into each other, and thus both are Catawban. The person who interviewed her said she was from Checotah, Oklahoma. Here are a few words she chose to tell;
“My grandfather was Elijah Hermigine Lerblanche. He was born in March, 1836, son of a Louisiana Frenchman [another Frenchman] and Vicay Genrty, who was daughter of Ellijay Gentry, a White man married to a full blood Catawba Indian. He came from Alabama to the Creek Nation at the age of 12.” Alabama was the home of many Creek Indians already, so she means their family moved from Alabama to Oklahoma (then called Indian Territory) about 1848, several years after the Trail of Tears. So Vicay's mother was full blood Catawba, making her half. This means Elijah, b. 1836, was 1/4th Catawba. Apparently the whole Gentry/Lerblanche clan moved within with the Creek Nation. They are the 17 Catawba listed that lived in and around Checotah by Milling and Wright.
Agent Cooper gives it as his opinion that on assembling of the National Council of the Choctaws and Chickasaws, on the payment of a reasonable sum thereof by the United States or by the State of South Carolina. Remember the State of South Carolina in 1840 had offered the Catawba $5,000 to give up their lands there, but this was never paid. Again in 1848 the Federal Government had offered another $5,000, and it too was never paid. So the Catawba were told they’d receive $10,000 for removing to the West, to Oklahoma – five thousand from the Federal government in the 1848 allotment, and five thousand dollars from the state of South Carolina for their lands in South Carolina per the 1840 treaty. To get the Choctaw to adopt them, they had promised them a parcel of that money. Once the Choctaw adopted 19 individual Catawba, they expected to be paid. But since neither the federal government nor the State of South Carolina ever gave the money, as promised, to the Catawba, the Catawba could not pay the Choctaw. Since the Choctaw were never paid, they refused to adopt any more Catawba. Part of the federal government’s 1848 agreement was that once the Catawba had found another tribe to adopt them, they would pay the $5,000 dollars they owed them. This became an infinite loop designed to take their lands in South Carolina and leave them stranded and homeless. At the same time, Indian lands in Oklahoma were given to settlers in land runs and lotteries. The Catawba had to jump through hoops that were impossible to be jumped through, and some of the same lands they’d been promised were freely given to others, no questions asked.
Some Melungeon Families Were Migrating to Oklahoma, too
It became common knowledge that the tribes time as owners of all of Oklahoma was limited. People known as “Boomers” were advocating for the territory to be opened up to White settlement. Rolls for all the Oklahoma tribes were made, and numbers counted. Each family was to be given 160 acres and excess was to be sold, or just given away in lotteries or land runs. When peoples who descended as mixed-bloods found still living in the eastern half of the United States, many thought this was their chance for having lost their tribal birthright, to be compensated.
Many remnant Siouan groups remained, as are verified in that 1948 document of remnant group in the east. When Dawes and Guion-Miller Rolls were made, and there was talk of Allotment lands in Oklahoma were to be given out only to realize the Catawba were NOT to be given any land. Many tried to apply as Cherokee. They were just seen as non-Cherokee who were trying to get some free land. Carlson wrote down a few of the names of some of these people who tried to apply as Cherokee, and Forest Hazel wrote down a few more names.
Carlson says “. . .In 1896, J. W. Perkins and John Baldwin again petitioned the Federal Government as well as the Cherokee Nation for permission to move as a body to Indian Territory, but the attempt failed.” (279)
This statement has my interest! The following thoughts are my ramblings. This is the same timeframe that Bain and Williamson were attempting to get the “Western Catawba Indian Association” federally recognized in Arkansas and Indian Territory (Oklahoma) where 257 individuals petitioned the federal government. Another record of this organization lists 4,000 members. I wonder if Perkins and Baldwin knew of Bain and Williamson’s attempts, and vice versa? 
Remember, these groups had to have the approval of the federal Government, as well. They wanted lands to settle on, too. But since they had been living as Whites, the government decided they had already assimilated – and many had, why run the risk they’d revert back to acting like “wild men”!? Again, this is just my guess. The immigrant tribes already in Oklahoma couldn’t be persuaded to share their lands with descendants of the Catawba, Saponi and Cheraw, and the government wanted ALL THE INDANS to assimilate, and gradually disappear, as these Eastern Siouan people were in the process of doing. These attempts by many Catawban people to retain their Indian culture were doomed to failure, from the start. There simply would be no “Western Catawba”.
Carlson begins chapter nine, p. 333 by saying; “In the last half of the 1800s, small groups of families and individuals of the Salyersville Indians had been periodically moving out to the Cherokee and Creek Nations in Indian Territory.” (280) Since this is what my family did – I am listening. He continues; “Coincidently, years later in an unrelated matter, many Salyersville Indian families remaining back in Kentucky would get involved in a court claims issue regarding all ‘Eastern Cherokee.’ In the process, they would provide letters, testimonies, and interviews which reveal the size and strength of their families as they addressed the government as a group.” (260) Apparently the people of Magoffin County, Kentucky only heard about the interviews for Eastern Cherokee descendants, now known as the Guion Miller Rolls, until 1907, and the court of claims would make its decision in 1905.
Carlson says, p. 334; For nearly two decades prior to the Court of Claims decision, many people from Magoffin County, both Indian and non-Indian had been sporadically moving in small family groups out to ‘the Nations’ in ‘Indian Territory’. I can add a little something to this. After the Civil War thousands of ex-Confederate soldiers and officials moved to Indian Territory. Parts of the Choctaw Nation even became known as ‘Little Dixie’ because of all these immigrants. Speaking of Louanne Cole, Carlson says (pp. 334-335); “Most of her children moved out to the Cherokee Nation right before and after the Civil War.” Carlson speaks of a grandson of Louanna who attended school in Vinita. I mention this because there was a short article in the Vinita Newspaper talking about an attempt to create ‘a Western Catawba Tribe’ in the 1880s-1890s. Another member of this family moved to Bedford, Oklahoma. Carlson says; “The rest of Siss’s children (Siss was a daughter of Louanna living in Oklahoma) in 1908 would report to the Special Commissioner of Indian Affairs that while they knew the names of Siss’s half brothers and sisters through Louanna (Louanna never left Magoffin County), they did not know their present place of residence, or even if they were still living. (281)
“Around 1880 a number of the Indians and mixed-bloods from Magoffin County . . . would set their sights on removing to the Indian Territory. . . most would go in large family groups. Carlson specifically mentions three families, Daniel and Jahaza Cole, James Jackson Shephard, as well as Shep and Mary Cole’s son, Lewis Cole.” (282)
Carlson also mentions the Howards. He says (p. 336); “Another early connection between the people from the Magoffin County area and Indian territory involved a member of the mixed-blood Howard family who remained closely tied to the Salyersville Indians who later moved out there. This was James Jackson Shephard . . . James left the Kentucky mountains sometime between 1872 and 1880 and sat down in San Bois in Indian Territory.” Carlson mentions several places this family lived over the next few decades, including San Bois, Stigler, Broken Arrow . . . and even parts of western Arkansas. Did you notice what I noticed? Stigler was one of several towns recorded as having Catawba Indian residents as were recorded by the “Western Catawba Indian Association”! Two Catawba were said to live there, but unfortunately their names were not given, per a document published by the 54th Congress, dated 13 Feb, 1897. Interestingly, Carlson says “James would hunt deer and take the dressed meat to sell at places like Fort Smith.” I must note my great grandparents also lived for a time in the 1870s near Fort Smith, but just inside Indian territory, beside Sequoyah and Leflore counties. I wonder if his family knew mine? The “Western Catawba Indian Association” was based out of Fort Smith. 
Carlson speaks of James Shepard finally settling down in his old age at Brushy Mountain near Muscogee in the Creek Nation, passing on in 1916. He adds; “by that point in time the Brushy Mountain area near Muscogee had become the residence of a number of Salyersville Indian families who had since immigrated west. He mentions several members of the Cole and Perkins families had migrated to Indian Territory. He mentions Lewis Cole living in Stroud. He says most of the families that came to Indian Territory were members of the Cole, Perkins, and Fletcher families (p. 338). (283)
Carlson says he doesn’t know why these families came to Oklahoma just before the turn of the century, about 1900, a little before or later. As a student of Oklahoma and Oklahoma History, I think I know.  It had to do with land. Thousands, millions in fact, came to Oklahoma about that time. Parts of Oklahoma were just being opened up for non-Indian settlement from 1889 on. The Western Tribes lost their lands first to land runs and in one case, a lottery. All the rest of the tribes lost their lands through the “Allotment Act”. All the citizens of the Nations were first given 160 acres. The rest was either lost in land runs, land sales, or land lotteries. Oklahoma went from a territory of probably, oh, I don’t know, maybe 100,000 persons in 1880 to a state with a population of about three million persons by 1910. We became a state in 1907. People from all over the country came here to get the excess Indian lands either free or at a cheap price. And a good number of these people were folks like my family, and like those from Salyersville, people who had some Indian blood. Initially they’d hoped to receive an allotment of 160 acres. Discovering they were not eligible, they remained to purchase the excess. Carlson cites some lady who said her family lived in tents and dugouts. So did my family! My aunt wrote me a letter saying her mother (grandma) had spoken of her parents (my great grandparents) living in covered wagons and in half-dugouts. A great uncle also mentioned these things. (284)
Similar Findings from Forrest Hazel
Forrest Hazel worked with some of the family groups in helping them to get recognized as "Indian" by eastern states, specifically Virginia and the Carolinas'. He wrote the following about those Saponi who tried to sign up as Cherokee on the Guion-Miller roll.
"In 1904, the Eastern Band of Cherokee won a settlement with the U.S. government based on violations of earlier treaties. This meant that thousands of persons of Eastern Cherokee ancestry were eligible for part of the settlement, and many of these people applied to the U.S. Court of Claims for a share (Jordan 1987-1990). It is interesting to read these applications, since a significant percentage of applicants were not Eastern Cherokee, but members of other tribes. These persons would now be identified as Lumbee, Alabama Creek, Meherrin, Haliwa, and Occaneechi (Saponi), along with a number of individuals who probably were of unmixed white or black ancestry.
"At least 20 Occaneechi descendants also applied; all were rejected by the commission as not being of Eastern Cherokee ancestry. Among these were Aaron Thomas Guy, born in Caswell County, North Carolina, the son of Henry Guy and grandson of Henry Guy. Henry Guy, Sr., was the brother of Richard Guy, Buckner Guy, and others who moved to Macon County, North Carolina, from the Texas community in the 1820s. Aaron Guy stated that his mother was a free woman of color, born free and raised by the Quakers in Guilford County, North Carolina. There is also testimony from a former slave who knew Henry Guy, Jr., to the effect that he was an Indian, married to a colored woman. Aaron Guy was living in Indiana at the time of his application.
"William C. Wilson, from Wichita, Kansas, also applied. He stated that he was born near Hendersonville, North Carolina, and was the son of Sam Wilson, a "half Cherokee," and Julian Guy. Julian Guy was the daughter of Richard Guy and Martha Whitmore, and Martha's mother was Lottie Jeffries. Wilson claimed that his grandfather, Richard Guy, was a white man, although the Macon County records list him as a "Free Colored head of Household." He also stated that his father, Sam Wilson, could speak the Indian language. Assuming he was not exaggerating to impress the government man, William Wilson's father may have spoken the old Saponi language, or he may have learned Cherokee from his neighbors in Macon County.
"William and Joe Gibson, from Murphy, North Carolina, applied, and the note "Probably Negros" was written on their application. William Gibson stated that his parents "passed as part Indian. No Negro blood in them." He further stated that his father spoke the Indian language. On the bottom of his testimony is a note, presumably written by the agent, which says, "This applicant shows the Indian so does his brother now with him. However, their ancestors were never enrolled." These Gibsons, who lived at various times in Tennessee and North Carolina, probably were also related to the Gibsons found in the so-called Melungeon groups of eastern Tennessee and western Virginia, which appear to have originated in the early mixed-blood populations of the North Carolina Piedmont area." (285)
The “Western Catawba Indian Association” of the 1880s-1890s
The most elusive of the Catawba to research are those that were called the “Western Catawba Indian Association” (286)
Newspaper Articles About the Western Catawba 
These three short articles about the Catawba in Arkansas were written between 1889- 1895, and are found in the local newspaper, "The Fort Smith Elevator". Some people were trying to organize a group of Catawba in the late 19th century. Also found, late in the day, a few lines in an article in "The Indian Chieftain" of Vinita, Oklahoma, dated 1888, when Vinita was a part of the Cherokee Nation. Remember Oklahoma only became a state in 1907. Here are transcriptions of those short newspaper articles.
August 16, 1889, The Fort Smith Elevator, Catawba Indian Association 
The Catawba Indian Association met at Rocky Ridge on the 10th. The meeting was called to order by the President. After the reading of the minutes and the calling of the roll of the officers, transacting other business that came before the order, a call for new members was made and 90 was added to the new list, after which the meeting adjourned to meet at Ault’s’ Mill, three miles south of Fort Smith, the second day of the fair, the 16th day of October, where the delegates and all persons interested will please attend without further notice, as matters of interest will be considered.
J. Bain, President
G. W. Williamson, Secretary (287)
I obtained this material by writing to the University of Arkansas at Fort Smith library. One of their librarians wrote the following: 
Hello Mr. Hawkins,
Attached is a copy of the article you requested. The article mentioned another meeting held on October 16th and I found it in the October 25th edition but the film was so dark I could not get a good print to scan. The text of the article follows. Please let me know if I can be of further assistance.
“October 25, 1889 p. 3 col. 5, From Fort Smith Historical Society publication.
“Attention Catawba’s!”
The Western Catawba’s Indian Association met at Ault’s Mill October 16, 1889, at which meeting a number of new members were added to the Association, thus making it nearly 4,000 strong. They appointed an executive committee which is empowered to transact all business and place the matter before congress. The Association adjourned to convene again at a called meeting of the president.” (288)
Taken originally from 
The Fort Smith Elevator” (newspaper), date probably early Jan 1895.
All Catawba Indians by blood or otherwise are requested to meet at the County Court House in Fort Smith Arkansas on Thursday, Jan 24th, 1895 at 10 o’clock a. m. for the purpose of perfecting the census roll of the Western Catawba Indian Association and the transaction of other matters that may come before the meeting. All Catawba Indians are expected to be present or by proxy as business of importance will come before the meeting.
James Bain, Preset., Geo. E. Williams, Scary,
Western Catawba Indian Association (289)
Please keep the timeframe in mind. The Dawes Act (also called the Allotment Act) had just been passed in Congress meaning the Indians in Oklahoma at least would no longer own all their lands in common – each Indian family was to receive – I think it was 160 acres. Well many more people were asking for this land than there actually were Indians living on the lands in Oklahoma. The Indians and whites both grew suspicious some of the applicants.
We hear of all those on the rejected Cherokee rolls. But we never hear of those who claimed Catawba ancestry. Apparently 4,000 people wanted to claim Catawba ancestry. The final list seems to have had only 257 names, so something happened to the rest, and I have found no list of the names of those 257 persons, nor of the 4,000. I will continue to look.
Also, these 4,000 are not on any accepted or rejected roll, either, as no roll was made for the Catawba of which I am aware. I am hoping to discover the names of those 257 as well as those 4,000. General opinion at the time was they were individuals who had a little Indian blood and had been living as Whites. The idea of giving free land to people who had not gone through the hardships of removal, people who had left them to live as Whites, was a bitter and difficult pill to swallow, for the traditional Indians who had never left the various tribes, and who still had many full bloods. But these mixed bloods had no choice. White families just moved in amongst them, totally surrounding them, and greatly out numbering them. It was suspected that many people applying were simply full blood Whites looking to take Indian lands as had happened so many times in the past. This attitude doomed the petitioners such as these claiming a Catawba heritage, to failure. But what became of them? They seem to have dried up like the water in the branch of a creek during the summer drought. 
I found one more reference; from "The Indian Chieftain", a newspaper from Vinita, Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory dated 1888, located in what is today north eastern Oklahoma. 
The Indian Chieftain, March 1, 1888, Vinita, Indian Territory (Oklahoma), image 2 of 4. It says; 
The Western Catawba Indian Association, with headquarters in Fort Smith, proposes to petition congress to set aside for the use of all persons of Indian blood, not members of any tribe, a portion of the Indian Territory.” (290) 
I cannot help but remember hearing that dad's grandparents were at one time thinking about signing up for the Dawes Allotments, but "something happened" and they never did. I remember my mother mentioning this, and she had no Indian blood, but her family lived next door to my great-grandparents on my Dad’s side. I wish I knew the right questions to ask back when I was younger, but at the time, I had no idea. Part of my quest in doing research was to find out exactly what happened. Why did they back out, and never even apply for Dawes? This would have been the 1890s or 1900s. 
260. Monday, 7th of October, 1901, “The Tennessean”, page 8, out of Nashville, Tn.
Kentucky’s Indian’s – Plenty of them left in the Mountain Section
261. Chapter II; Indian Days and Early Settlers; Immigration to Arkansas of the “Lungens,” From "The History of Baxter County, Arkansas" by Mary Ann Messick

261. Ditto
262. Ditto
263. Ditto
264. Ditto
265. Early Lawrence County, Arkansas Records
266. Ditto
267. Chapter II; Indian Days and Early Settlers; Immigration to Arkansas of the “Lungens,” From "The History of Baxter County, Arkansas" by Mary Ann Messick
270. "The Catawba Indians, The People of the River"; by Douglas Summers Brown, University of South Carolina Press, (c) 1966.
271. Ditto
272. "Catawba Nation, Treasures in History" by Dr. Thomas J. Blumer
273. Ditto
274. "Red Carolinians", by Chapman Milling; University of South Carolina Press 1969, (c) Chapman Milling. First Published University of North Carolina Press, 1940.
275. "A Guide to the Indian Tribes of Oklahoma" by Muriel H. Wright, my edition published by the Civilization81 of the American Indian Series, University of Oklahoma Press, copyright 1951, 1986
276. Ditto
277. "Red Carolinians", by Chapman Milling; University of South Carolina Press 1969, (c) Chapman Milling. First Published University of North Carolina Press, 1940.
278. Ditto
279. IPP papers:
280. 'Who's your people?': Cumulative identity among the Salyersville Indian population of Kentucky's Appalachia and the Midwest muck fields, 1677--2000. by Dr. Richard Allen Carlson Jr.; Michigan State University
281. Ditto
282. Ditto
283. Ditto
284. Ditto
285. “Finding Our Indian Blood”; Vance Hawkins; © 2013 Bluewater Publications
286. “Various Eastern Siouan Communities” by Forest Hazel
287. The “Western Catawba Indian Association” was mentioned in several newspaper articles of the time. There were articles in the Fort Smith Elevator dated August 16, 1889, October 16th, 1889, before January 24th, 1895. These accounts are from the Fort Smith Elevator Newspaper. there is a fourth account In the Indian Chieftain out of Vinita, Indian Territory (Cherokee Nation), dated March 1st, 1888.
288. Ditto
289. Ditto
290. Ditto
Image 4.