Sunday, August 12, 2018

Genealogical, D. N. A., and Historical Family Research

Finding Your Ancestors

I have never written a blog entry about “How to Perform Family Research”. Well, I am now. As with most of my blog entries, I’ll have to edit it.

I. Genealogy Research
You will never find everything you seek. But you can find something. After looking for over twenty years, I think I have a few things I can share. Maybe you have already used these methods. 
A. Interview elders in your family still living. Write down their family stories, or better yet -- ask them to write down those stories. Ask about old photographs and newspaper clippings that mention the family. Is the family mentioned in any book? All this background material should be helpful in deciding where you should research next. Carefully document and cite each record you find. That is write “Great Uncle ABC said XYZ on DATE, at LOCATION. This is recorded [cite the sources].” Next seek out cooborating evidence. Seek out other source material that can prove what your relatives have said. People’s memories might fail, or they might remember incorrectly. Maybe they were told the story incorrectly.
 B.  Research the usual genealogical material. You have probably heard where some family members lived. Look up old census, probate, and marriage records. Create a story for each person. Follow them from one census to the next, from one location to another. Most of this information exists online, now.
 Research military records for known soldiers, sailors, airmen, coast guard personnel, and search for both for marines and merchant marines. My father was in the Field Artillery during World War Two. If you can find the units they belonged to, research that military unit. You can discover the histories of many historic military units online. Researching is a lot easier than it used to be.
 We have one relative (first cousin to my great-great grandma) who was a Methodist minister. The United Methodists often write down the history of the church in each state. I found a photograph of that minister in a book, as well as a short history of him and his family. 
 That same Methodist family had a couple of generations earlier, lived in Cashel, County Tipperary, Ireland. We discovered that information by utilizing the genealogical pages on the internet. Someone in New Zealand was researching the same family, and had copied down Irish records of that same family. They had written and asked for church records in Cashel, and found the local church had kept records of christenings for centuries. They had a record of the birth of my ancestor was christened there in 1745. This other person from half way around the world helped me greatly. Their family had left Ireland a hundred years after my ancestors had left, and thus still had family stories of that move, stories that had been forgotten by our branch of the same family. I had heard that family was either English or Irish. It turns out we descended from an English family that had migrated to Ireland. Our family story about them was correct, but partially forgotten. Our family story said they were either English or Irish. The truth was they were an English family who had migrated to Ireland. Many family stories are like that – they contain truths but they are also incomplete. Use genealogical message boards – you might get lucky and discover a long-lost relative from over the sea who knows more than you do. 
  C. There is a special case of researching American Indian peoples. You have to be very lucky to find them if your ancestor married out of the tribe, and moved off. Some people have tried to say they descend from a tribe that disappeared into the hills only to be rediscovered in the 1870’s. Many tribes were removed from their homes and forced to migrate hundreds of miles. Known tribal members will not welcome outsiders coming and telling them they are also tribal members. Each have their own criteria for tribal membership. We have family stories that we have Cherokee blood. There are groups out there who do nothing by seek to prove those family stories are lies. Do NOT go up to tribal members boldly telling them that you too, are Cherokee! Humbly mention it at an opportune time. Let them know if you have documentation of it or not. DO NOT initiate a tit-for-tat response. Let it go, and move on. They might tear into you without proof and call you a liar.
 You have other groups out there who believe without proof of any kind that they are “Indian”, yet are as white as freshly washed and bleached sheets. Both extremists should be questioned. Seek the middle road. Both extremists can be wrong. Seek evidence elsewhere. There are plenty of old Cherokee rolls. Contrary to what some will tell you, not everyone is listed. Contrary to what others will tell you, saying you have family stories of having a Cherokee ancestor isn’t enough, either. Trying to say “go the middle path” or rejecting both extremes has made enemies for me from both camps. Do what you know is right. Learn the difference between evidence and proof.
 Your family story is evidence, not proof -- of possible Cherokee ancestry. You use your evidence to point you in the right direction to find further evidence. You can accumulate more and more evidence. If your evidence doesn’t amount to proof, you call it “circumstantial evidence”. It might still be a “coincidence”. But the more circumstantial evidence you can accumulate, the less likely it can still be considered only a coincidence.
 D. After you have old documents, census records, probate information or other pertinent material, you’re ready for the next step.
Memorize these five steps -- 1. NAMES; 2. DATES; 3. LOCATIONS; 4. EVENTS; and 5. CITATIONS.
Discover the names of your ancestors and close relatives. Find out, as close as you can, the exact date and location, of their birth, marriage, and death. Cite the name of the sources for all of this information. Organize this information however you like. Make it easy for yourself and others to follow.

 II. DNA Research
There is a newer and controversial branch of research dealing with DNA. It is controversial because it is still in its infancy. Many of us are confused by this. I was confused for a long time, about the difference between an “x-chromosomes” and “autosomal chromosomes”.
Every human descends from a male and a female. We call the male our father and the female our mother. The person is one generation, and his or her parents is a second generation. Since each human descends from two previous humans, the number of our direct ancestors doubles every generation. So in 1 generation we have 2 ancestors. In 2 generations we have 4, and in three generations we have 8. So in ten generations we have (get out the old calculator if you don’t believe me) -- we have 1,024 direct ancestors. If our ancestor averaged 40 years of age when they produced the child that was out direct ancestor, that covers only four hundred hears! That would mean for many of us to find a direct ancestor in common with another person, which is proven by DNA research, we’d have to sift through over a thousand ancestors each, just to get back to 1700 alone. And that’s a BEST CASE SCENARIO. Few if any of us will have parents as old as 40 years of age for ten straight generations.
I have said in the past that there are three types of DNA. Well, I was wrong. The x-chromosome is not autosomal DNA as I had once thought. There are four types of DNA that should concern us. They are separate. Our DNA consists of twenty-three pairs of chromosomes. The first twenty-two of these pairs compose our autosomal DNA. 
We inherit these twenty-two strands from both of our parents. On the average, we should inherit about 50% of our autosomal DNA from each parent. However we might inherit 70% from one parent, and 30% from the other. But this material will tell us of all our ancestors. If you are bi or tri-racial – this material can prove it.
The twenty-third pair comprise both the x and y chromosome in males, and two x-chromosome strands in females. The y-chromosome DNA which is passed down from father to son only. My sister will not carry this. She carries no y-chromosome DNA at all.  This tells us about the origin men’s father’s. This will tell me about my Hawkins surname only. 
Males inherit the x-chromosomal DNA information from their mother only. Females do not inherit ANY y-chromosomal DNA from their fathers. They inherit instead two x-chromosomal strands, one from their father and one from their mother.
If you are female, to find out about your father, you must have your brother or your father take this test for you. If you have no brothers and your father’s DNA is inaccessable – perhaps a paternal uncle exists. So in ten generations, we will discover we have 1,024 parents, half male and half female. The y-chromosome DNA test will tell us something about one ancestor in each generation, or put another way, slightly less than one percent of our ancestral tree, when only 10 generations are considered. 
The last type of DNA is your mitochondrial DNA, or mtDNA. This DNA is passed down from a mother to all her children, including males. Thus I have mtDNA from my mother. But since female maiden names are often forgotten the further back in time we go, it is possible will never discover any “original” maiden name. The same is true here – our mtDNA will tell us something about 10/1024ths, or 1/102.4 of our ancestors. But it can not find her surname. It will give us a degree of knowledge about her nationality or race, and perhaps a little other information about this or that. It will not tell us a lot more than that.

III. Historical Research
You probably want to know more about your ancestors than just their names, important dates in their lives, or something about their families. 
There are many things I would have never known had I not researched history in the counties where my ancestors lived. I have several ancestors who fought in the Revolutionary War and one we know of was killed in it. But we did not start out with these things.
It is very important you always map a name to a date to a location and an event at that location at that time. Many tribes migrated from the east to Oklahoma or other states. Can your family be found along that migration route during the time of their migration? Does your family have surnames of known tribal members? An answer of “YES” to these questions is NOT proof -- But it can add to the circumstantial evidence that you collect.
Another source of information can be county histories. Many counties decided to record their histories. They got family members to tell stories of their ancestors and their trials and tribulations in pioneering their homes. The family of one great uncle wrote about themselves. At the end of the article they wrote; “Oscar Richey is a direct descendant of Sequoyah”. Oscar was one of Grandma’s brothers. I had asked Aunt Lorena (dad’s sister) to write about our relationship to Sequoyah and she wrote she was told (by her mother, my grandma) my great-great grandma (Harriet-Guess/Gist- Brown -- her great grandma) was “either Sequoyah’s niece or great-niece”. Dad had a story about that, too and I recorded and saved it. He said his grandma (my great grandma) thumbed through his “Oklahoma History” text book and pointed to the “picture of an Indian” in it and said to him, “did you know you were related to him?” When I finally got interested in his story he was older, and I found an old Oklahoma History text book that contained the famous drawing of Sequoyah. I asked him if this was the photo his grandma was talking about. All he ever answered was “I just don’t remember”. So I have collected three stories – one that says we descend from Sequoyah, another that says we are related to Sequoyah, and a third that says we are related to “an Oklahoma Indian” who’s drawing was found in an Oklahoma History book. Each story is slightly different. As an honest researcher, I can’t promote one story over the others. I can simply mention all three. All three stories are EVIDENCE – NONE OF THEM were proof. All three stories are FAMILY STORIES – label them as such when you tell them to your grandkids. 
There is also a story written in a book entitled “Land of the Lake” where there is a story of a John Guess/Gist from E Tn and it says he “was some kin of Sequoyah”. Our family story also says we come from East Tennessee where John lived. Our Harriet Guess said on some census records she was born in Tennessee. She was born about 1817 or 18 per various census records. Another of the Alabama Gist’s (Christopher, b. 1804) also said he was b. in Tennessee. So here is more evidence from a separate source stating a Gist family was related “somehow” to Sequoyah. That’s pretty much what our stories say! Put this story with others and properly cite it.  There is a story about a “David Smith” who also lived at one time in Lawrence County, Alabama. That’s where our family lived once they moved to Alabama. They lived there at the same time David Smith lived there. He moved to Missouri. His son wrote a little something about their family. He states David’s mother was a Gist/Guess and that they also were related to Sequoyah. So many branches of this same family independently claim they are related to Sequoyah. So we have three independent stories from my close family, and two other sources from more independent sources, all stating a kinship to Sequoyah. That’s quite a bit of circumstantial evidence. NEVER overstate your evidence. Don’t say “we descend from so-and-so . . .” without proof. State your sources, and your evidence, and leave it at that.
Research to discover various branches of your family. Then research those branches. You might research many branches and find nothing at all. Then after a year or two of getting discouraged, you might discover a pearl.
If you want to find your real family, continue with historical research once you have exhausted your genealogical sources. Your genealogical family is like a skeleton. You must put muscle on those bones, and that is what historical research does.

Saturday, July 14, 2018

Wovoka's Ghost Dance Prophesy

I’m writing this in July, 2018. 
About 45 years ago, when I was about 20, I met a local Mexican girl, here in southwestern Oklahoma. I made a mistake, unknowingly. I mentioned I thought she looked “Indian”. She got pretty upset at me, and said, “I’m SPANISH! Not Indian!” Time passed, and I left southwestern Oklahoma, only to return in the 1990s. 
I got a job about a decade ago driving a van sometimes, and a bus sometimes. Some days I was scheduled to drive a bus to pick up head start children. We picked up children from 2 to 4 years of age. Later in the day, we would take them home. On the first day and sometimes for the first two weeks or so, some of the children were away from their mother for the first time in their lives for any extended period of time. Some of them, of all races and mixes, would get scared and cry. Some of the children were Hispanic, mostly Mexican. I learned very quickly to say, “No llores, por favor”. That means “Please don’t cry”. Since they’d never been away from mama, they got scared very easily. For some reason, I was thinking about that recently.
One of the head start teachers was this young girl from Del Rio, Texas, which is right on the Texas/Mexican border. She spoke perfect Spanish and fluent English both, and I got to know her pretty well. She could be blunt. She asked me “Why do people here call me Spanish? I’m not Spanish.” And she went on to say she was Native American and was proud of her heritage. I thought to myself how some attitudes had changed in the last four decades. Some people had gone from being ashamed of their native heritage to embracing it in both nations, Mexico and the United States.
I started thinking about other things. One thing led to another, and  as the gestalt of all these things came together, I started to think about putting up another blog entry. Here goes. Have current events led us to see the fulfillment of Wovoka's prophesy? NO!! But the shoe does seem to fit the size of the foot. And what was his prophesy?

The Ghost Dance Prophesy
            When I was younger I remember reading about “the Ghost Dance” and a prophesy that went with it. I don’t remember the details. It went something like the Old Indians would return to North America. And I was thinking of the recent Mexican and Central American migration up here. Are they the return of the “old people”? Are they the fulfillment of the prophesy? Well I want to look it up online. What does it say online about the “Ghost Dance”?  Are the return of Mexican and Central American Indian mixed-race people the fulfillment of this prophesy? What do you think? Please note I am asking this question myself. Maybe it is nonsense, I don’t know.
             I read the following from the website above. It says – “This movement found its origin in a Paiute Indian named Wovoka”. The Paiute tradition that led to the Ghost Dance began in the 1870s in the Western Great Basin from the visions of Wodziwob (Gray Hair) concerning earth renewal and the reintroduction of the spirits of ancient Numu (Northern Paiute)” . . . end of quote. It is interesting to note the Comanche also call themselves “Numu”. Back to the website, it says; “The movement began with a dream by Wovoka (named Jack Wilson in English), a Northern Paiute, during the solar eclipse on January 1, 1889. He claimed that, in his dream, he was taken into the spirit world and saw all Native Americans being taken up into the sky and the Earth opening up to swallow all Whites and to revert back to its natural state . . . The Native Americans, along with their ancestors, were put back upon the earth to live in peace.”
           “His teachings followed a previous Paiute tradition predicting a Paiute renaissance. . . He also told them to remain peaceful and keep the reason for the dance secret from the Whites. Wovoka’s message spread quickly to other Native American peoples and soon many of them were fully dedicated to the movement. Representatives from tribes all over the nation came to Nevada to meet with Wovoka and learn to dance the Ghost Dance and to sing Ghost Dance songs.” Here is a photo of Wovoka (1856-1932). 

              From the webpage above – “Wovoka was born about 1856 in Smith Valley or Mason Valley, Nevada, as one of four sons of Tavid, also known as Numo-tibo's, a well-known medicine man. (A link of Wovoka's father to an earlier Ghost Dance of 1870 in the region is unclear.) Both of Wovoka's parents survived into the twentieth Century. At about the age of fourteen Wovoka was sent to live with and work for the Scotch-English family of David Wilson. During this period he acquired the names Jack Wilson and Wovoka, meaning "Wood Cutter."
“The religious influences upon Wovoka were diverse. Wovoka was clearly affected by the religious values of the pious United Presbyterian family; Mr. Wilson read the Bible each day before work. He lived in a region where traveling preachers were common and Mormonism prevalent. There is a possibility that Wovoka traveled to California and the Pacific Northwest, where he may have had contact with reservation prophets Smohalla and John Slocum.
“At about the age of twenty he married Tumm, also known as Mary Wilson. They raised three daughters. At least two other children died.” End of direct quote. I don’t know who these two prophets were.
Quote --“The turning point in Wovoka's life came in the late 1880's. In December of 1888 Wovoka may have been suffering from scarlet fever. He went into a coma for a period of two days. Observer Ed Dyer said, "His body was as stiff as a board." Because Wovoka's recovery had corresponded with the total eclipse of the sun on January 1, 1889, he was credited by the Numu’s for bringing back the sun, and thereby saving the universe.
“After this apparent near death experience, Wovoka proclaimed that he had a spiritual vision with personal contact with God who gave him specific instructions to those still on earth. According to Wovoka, God told him of a transformation by the spring of 1891 when the deceased would again be alive, the game would again flourish, and the whites would vanish from the earth. He had also been instructed to share power with the President of the East, Benjamin Harrison. Until the time of the apocalypse, Wovoka counselled the living to work for the dominant population and attempt to live a morally pure life. The plan for the future could only be assured if believers followed the special patterns and messages of the Ghost Dance, which Wovoka taught his followers.” End of quote.
Were his words recorded exactly? Is there any room for leeway? Is it 100% literal? Is it figurative? I don’t know. His prophesies scared some people. Wovoka himself told the people not to tell the white people about his prophesy. Therefore any knowledge of it found online might be a corruption of it. And that includes  every word I write about it.

The Wounded Knee Massacre
In 1890 a Paiute named Wovoka became father of a movement known as the “Ghost Dance”. This dance promised a great resurrection of cultures and peoples the U. S. government sought to eradicate, those cultures on this continent that predated European conquests. Many western tribes sought to cling to any hope that their entire way of life might not disappear forever. Wovoka’s prophesy was a means to cling to that hope. One great tribe of many bands were the Sioux of the Dakota Territories. The Ghost Dance became popular amongst some of them. 
The people would dance until they grew tired, and some fainted. This was repeated over and over. The government became scared of the dancers, and thought it was the beginning of an uprising. The government didn’t know what was going on, and let their imaginations run wild. They thought surely Sitting Bull had something to do with it. On December 15th, 1890 government men tried to arrest Sitting Bull, but they allowed themselves to get spooked and killed him instead.
On the 29th day of December, a group of Lakota Sioux under Big Foot were doing the Ghost Dance near Wounded Knee Creek when soldiers came upon them. The article I read said no one knows who started shooting first, but since all of the Lakota were killed, we don’t know their side of the story. I think there's a high probability that the soldiers fired both first, and last. It was said 150 were massacred by the soldiers with half of than number being women and children. Estimates of up to twice that number are mentioned.
The Ghost Dance didn’t appear to be working, in 1890. At this time, many tribes had become extinct, while for others only mixed race people were left to represent them. In every generation there appeared more and more Caucasian, and in every generation there appeared fewer and fewer Native Americans. The government hoped it was just a matter of time until the people all vanished. Could the Ghost Dance stop this trend, or was it a hoax?

Texas War of Independence and the War with Mexico
Here is a little history of the land of the Paiute that led up to the time of the Ghost Dance. Spain claimed the land of the Paiute. Mexico broke away from Spain. At the time Mexico included all the regions between Texas and California in the North of that country, including the land of the Paiute. At the same time the United States was expanding westwards. Soon a clash between Spanish and English culture erupted between their surrogates, the United States and Mexico.
Mexico decided to accept White immigration in Texas, and poor farmers flooded over the Texas border becoming subjects of Mexico. Texans eventually demanded independence from Mexico, which they won after a short war. In the 1840s a second war won great stretches of desert, prairie and mountains from Mexico by the United States. The entire region to the Pacific Coast was ceded to the United States. Here is a map showing the territory that changed hands in the Texas and Mexican wars. The Paiute people, who had been subjects of the Mexican Nation, became subjects of the United States.

The map above came from the following website; -- -- Land from Sacramento to Salt Lake City and Santa Fe had been part of Mexico. This entire region became part of the United States after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed in 1848.
The following year -- 1849 -- gold was discovered in California and the original Spanish and Indian population of California was over run by settlers hoping to cash in on “gold fever”. California’s Indian peoples were virtually exterminated overnight by greedy 49ers. The original Spanish population of Texas became a small minority, and her few remaining Indian peoples were shipped North to Oklahoma by the time of the Civil War or shortly thereafter. In 1875 the last Comanche warriors, Quanah’s band, were driven from their last stronghold, Palo Duro Canyon in the Texas panhandle, and the last Indian peoples were driven out of Texas.
It was after these events that Wovoka delivered his prophesy. His tribe, the Paiute, were native to some of the lands that changed hands in the Mexican War. 

Tribes Related to the Paiute
What if Wovoka’s prophesies were meant for the Paiute and their close relatives? Per linguist’s, here is a list of the tribes who speak a language closely related to Wovoka’s native language, the language of the Paiute peoples. It includes the Ute, Comanche, Hopi and others in the U. S., and the Aztecs and many others in Mexico, going as far south as Panama. In fact almost half of Mexico once spoke a related language. I found a list of languages related to the Paiute here -- .

Uto-Aztecan Language Group

I.                   Northern Uto-Aztecan
Western Numic 
Northern Paiute (includes Paviotso, Bannock, and Snake)
Monache (aka Mono)
Central Numic 
Southern Numic 
Southern Paiute

II.                Southern Uto-Aztecan 
Pima-Papago (aka O’odham)
Pima Bajo
Northern Tepehuan–Southern Tepehuan
Northern Tepehuan
Southern Tepehuan
Aztecan (aka Nahuan)
Pochutec (extinct)       
Core Nahua 
Pipil (aka Nahuate, Nawat) 
In addition to these languages, there is a very long list of names identified in colonial and other early sources that are generally thought to represent extinct Uto-Aztecan groups, most in northern Mexico. No information has survived on most of these, and it is not certain whether they represent independent groups with their own languages or just alternative names for others already known. 
Map Showing the Locations of the Uto-Aztecan Peoples at the Time of Conquest
           Shades of gray on the map below are the locations where the Uto-Aztecan people traditionally were found. Of course in the modern era they have spread out over the countryside. The map below can also be found here online -- 

World War Two and the Bracero Program
Decades passed without much change. Then in December 7th, 1941, the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Butterfly effect -- changes in one part of the world can cause changes in other parts that were never expected.
After the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, young American males left their farms and cities in droves, enlisting in the military. This led to serious problems. Many women had to work in factories and offices at jobs previously held by men. But there were still jobs that needed to be filled, and soon. Crops were maturing in the field in early 1942. Who would be there to harvest them in the fall? The United States government and the Mexican government got together, and the Bracero Program was begun. Bracero means (per wikipedia) “one who works with his arms” in Spanish.
The Bracero Program operated as a joint program under the State Department, the Department of Labor, and the Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS) in the Department of Justice. Under this pact, the laborers were promised decent living conditions in labor camps, such as adequate shelter, food and sanitation, as well as a minimum wage pay of 30 cents an hour. This program was intended to fill the labor shortage in agriculture brought on by World War Two. The program lasted 22 years and offered employment contracts to 5 million braceros in 24 U.S. states—becoming the largest foreign worker program in U.S. history.
Here is a link to a song written by Woody Guthrie, "Deportee"; as recorded by "The Last Internationle that speaks of the Bracero Program 


           U.S Department of State urged the bracero program to counter the popularity of communism in Mexico. Furthermore, it was seen as a way for Mexico to be involved in the Allied war effort. The first braceros were admitted on September 27, 1942, for the sugar-beet harvest season. From 1948 to 1964, the U.S. imported on average 200,000 braceros per year. 
The Catholic Church in Mexico was opposed to the Bracero program, objecting to the separation of husbands and wives and the resulting disruption of family life. The Church objected to the exposure of migrants to vices such as prostitution, alcoholism, and gambling that they found near their camps in the United States.
President Truman signed Public Law 78 in July 1951. Soon after it was signed, United States negotiators met with Mexican officials to prepare a new bilateral agreement. This agreement made it so that the U.S. government were the guarantors of the contract, not U.S. employers . . . The agreement set forth that all negotiations would be between the two governments.
These programs were in effect until 1964. During those years, (eyeballing the list) over four and a half million Mexican citizens entered the United States legally for seasonal farm labor. Some over stayed their work contracts and became illegal, sort of like the Whites who had illegally intruded onto Indian lands a century or more earlier. So in a sense, this was Indians returning to lands of their ancestors. Karma?

Mexican and Central American Immigration
            One thing rarely mentioned in the migration arguments about Mexican and Central Americans returning to the United States is that many of these people are Native American. The tribes many of the people belonged to settled on both sides of the border and originally spoke a language related to the language of Wovoko, Paiute prophet. Did he predict their return? Are they the fulfillment of the Ghost Dance Prophesy? I don’t know. I’m not superstitious. It could easily be a  coincidence. In previous years, many immigrants came from Mexico, where many people are related to the Paiute. More recently refugees from Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador have flooded to the border, hoping a nation of immigrants would have pity on them in their time of need. But we see many people from these regions too spoke Uto-Aztecan languages. Due to gang violence, many of their lives are in danger. It is interesting that many relatives of Wovoka are the very people returning to the North in what could be considered, in a loose sense -- as a fulfillment of his prophesy -- or as I said -- it could be a coincidence. hmmm . . . the prophesy has to be nonsense, right?
If we are TRULY a Christian nation and possess Christin passion we will help the refugees! If our Christianity is as shallow as the swamp in the White House in Washington D. C., we won’t. I don't know if these events are a fulfillment of prophesy or not. 
But -- 
I am quite certain that the soul of America is being exposed. How will that go?

Saturday, March 31, 2018

Surnames associated with the Catawba and Associated Bands

I promised a friend I'd make a list of surnames associated with the eastern Siouan Peoples. Here is a beginning. It was taken from -- (1)

There are other lists of surnames not included in this list. I will add them in the next few months. Most of this writing starts with information taken from that 1948 Smithsonian article. Parts are added as seems appropriate.

1948 was before the state recognition process had begun. Some of these groups are now state recognized and some aren’t. Many groups were known by different names in 1948 and some that are state recognized today were not even mentioned in 1948. Although this article mentions the Catawba, they do not list any “Catawba” surnames! It does list surnames of some of the bands associated with the Catawba, and I have other sources for the surnames they neglected to mention in that 1948 Smithsonian document.

Please remember most ancestors of ALL the surnames are of European origin. The fact that you share a surname is just an aid and not proof of Native American ancestry. This report also lists the state and county where these people can be found. I tell everyone that I help they must map a name, with a date and a location. Once you can match through genealogical records your proven ancestor was in a i.] location, with a ii.] surname associated with a tribe during the iii.] timeframe they that tribe lived there, you still haven’t proven you descend from them. There is one more thing you can do – you can take an autosomal DNA test. If iv.] x-chromosomal DNA that is Native American in origin is found in your DNA, there is a good chance you might have had an ancestor from that tribe.

Some groups I list as Siouan speakers (Catawban) may have been instead Tuscaroran  in the north or Cherokee or Creek in the South. The Yamassee, Westo, Natchee, Apalachee and others vanished from history, but it is known some survivors of many groups survived, and their blood might also reside in many of these people. Many of the tribes that disappeared were made into slaves, and their blood too, might reside in some of the triracial peoples found amongst most of these groups. X-chromosomal DNA test results might tell us a little about our lost ancestors, as well. We might be able to prove a triracial ancestry, but this leave us with more questions that answers.

If you can map several ancestors to several locations with several surnames in your family’s history, you might want to look at all the tribes involved. Unless you can meet the criteria for tribal membership, you may not be able become a tribal member. But you can learn their history and culture, if you like. This is just the beginning. I have other surnames from other sources. From time to time I’ll be adding them. This is just the first installment.

I. North/South Carolina Border

A. History of the Region's American Indian Peoples
When you look at the counties and communities mentioned, these people appear to like within a county or two surrounding Charleston. At the time of the “War of Jenkins Ear” between the English Colonies of Georgia and South Carolina on one hand, and Spanish Florida on the other in the late 1730s and 1740 or so, we have maps showing the region as being settled by “Settlement Indians”. Many of these Indian peoples came from tribes that no longer existed. Either the slave trade had taken them, or disease had. Their ancestors might have been Apalachee, Yamassee, Westo, Edesto, Sewee, or a host of others that just vanished. A South Carolina state recognized tribe called Waccamaw is in this region today. A tribe with a similar name once was in the region. Many Indian slaves also once resided in the area. The first map shows where the Indian peoples lived previously to the Tuscarora and Yamassee wars (abt 1711-1717). It is below:

The next map is of the same region, but after these wars, many of these bands have disappeared, especially in North Carolina, where the Tuscarora have been reduced to southeastern Virginia surrounded by the Notaway, Saponi and Meheren. Also the region near Charleston has “Settlement Indians” listed instead of known tribes. Vast areas in both Carolinas are now open to White settlement where these tribes had formerly lived.
The region on the mp designated "Settlement Indians", "Waccamaw's", and "Cpe Fear's" is the part of the map where these people previously called "Brass Ankles" are known to live today. They are still here, today. They intermarried with local White's and Blacks for generations until their original race can barely be detected. But they are still with us.

B. Catawbas (1).
The remnants of this tribe are located at a small settlement on the banks of the Catawba River in York County, about 9 miles southeast of Rockhill, the county seat. The settlement is about 1 square mile in area, or 630 acres. The 1930 census returned 159 Indians in York County. Their blood seems to be mostly a mixture of white and Indian.

Although they are directly under the laws of South Carolina they maintain a semblance of tribal government, electing a chief every 4 years. Conditions have long been unsatisfactory with respect to economic and social matters. The State has annually appropriated a sum of money to support the local school, but there are no local social agencies to assist the Catawbas. These Indians cut and haul wood and are employed as day laborers. The women often make clay pottery and pipes. Federal assistance has been given to these Indians in recent years.

Although no Catawban surnames were listed, I have other sources (2)
Wahoo (Screech Owl)

Muriel H. Wright mentions some of these, plus a few others (3) 

C 1. Croatans (North Carolina) (1) :
South Carolina Counties: Marlboro, Dillon, Marion, Horry, along northeastern borders of the State.
North Carolina Counties:They are found in greatest concentration in Robeson County but occur in considerable numbers in the nearby counties of Bladen, Columbus, Cumberland, Harnett, Sampson, and Scotland.
Siouans or Croatans. — This group is estimated to number upwards of 16,000 persons and is thought to be increasing with greater rapidity than either whites or Negroes. Physical measurements indicate the presence of Indian, white, and Negro types. There is said to be a tendency for the lighter individuals and families to hold aloof from the darker ones just as in the case of the Nanticokes and the Narragansetts. 

Originally dwellers in the swamplands of the Lumbee River, they have become successful tenant farmers cultivating cotton, tobacco, and corn. The State has recognized their special status and they are endowed with a separate school system from both whites and Negroes. They have their own churches. Intermarriage with either Negroes or whites is forbidden by law and custom. 


C 2. Today These People are Called Lumbee Indians
These people have been known under many names. They were originally discovered living in the old homelands of the Cheraw and Pedee Indians. They were once called Cherokee, Croatan, Siouan, and today are known as “Lumbee” Indians. In the days of “separate but equal” schools they were given their own schools, that were known as “Indian” schools, in North Carolina. They have been called “Indian” for generations. However some families claim a Tuscarora heritage. These tribes are all mentioned during the French and Indian War in the 1750s and 60s.  From the Revolutionary War on we hear very little about them. A few surnames reappear as “Indian” during the Civil War 1861-1865. In the 1880s more was written about them. They were called “Croatan” by whites who wanted there to be survivors amongst the people of the lost colony of Roanoke. Then they became recognized by the Congress of North Carolina however they were called Cherokees. By now it was early in he 20th century. The Cherokee in Western North Carolina protested to calling these Indians in Robison County “Cherokee” and these Indians in Robison County also knew they were not Cherokee – they were given that name by politicians.  In 1933 they wanted to change the name to Cheraw, with one man stating his grandmother was a Pedee Indians and his father’s father was a Cheraw. But some said they were not Cheraw either, so the name “Siouan Indians” was used. A faction of the tribe said they were NOT Siouan either, but rather Tuscarora. Eventually a name was chosen, Lumbee Tribe. After the nearby Lumber River. (4)

D. Brass Ankles, etc. (South Carolina): 
Charleston, Colleton, Dorchester, Berkeley, Orangeburg, and Clarendon, coastal and adjacent areas of the State.


Other Surnames Not Listed here

II. Tribal People Along the Virginia/North Carolina Border, Usually Associated with the Saponi

A. Cubans (North Carolina and Virginia):
In northeastern Person County on the Virginia border is located a group called Cubans who number
about 400 persons. They also occur just across the State line in Halifax County, Va., around Christie and Virgilina. The chief family names are Coleman, Eps, Martin, Shepherd, Stewart, and Tally. The State of North Carolina maintains an Indian school for these people near High Plains. Near the school the Cubans maintain their own Baptist church. They also maintain their own social lodge. Marriage with either whites or Negroes is unusual on the part of these people. These Person County Indians may be descendants of a small band of Saponi Indians who, according to early census reports, inhabited Granville County, N. C. (from which Person County was later set off).


B. Machapunga (North Carolina) :
In northeastern North Carolina in Dare and Hyde Counties and in Roanoke Island are to be found a few Indian remnants of the Machapunga Tribe mixed with white and Negro blood. Their family names are Pugh, Daniels, Berry, and Westcott. Just outside the town of Hertford, N. C, in Perquimans County there is a group of mixed- bloods who are called the Laster Tribe from their most common surname. They have a tradition of descent from a Moorish or Indian mixed-blood sea captain who long before the Civil War married a white woman and settled in this location. They maintain that they were never slaves and have held themselves somewhat aloof from the neighboring Negroes. At the present time they number several hundreds and many have gone westward to Indiana, Nebraska, and other States. In their original settlement they have their own school, church, and stores. Somewhat to the west of Person County in Rockingham County the census of 1930 reports a considerable body of Indians. The identity of this group is not known. Likewise in Nash County, eastward of Raleigh, a small Indian group is recorded in the  census of 1930. In Macon County near the Cherokee country some Croatans are said to have settled.


After the Saponi lost their reservation at Fort Christanna, they scattered in several directions. Many remained on the North Carolina/Virginia and still remain there to this day. There is a map I found online. It shows where many of these people now are. Many are in state recognized tribes. The 1948 document only showed two group, but there were others living in the same general area.

Forrest Hazel lists several more surnames associated with the Indian peoples living in North Carolina, on the North Carolina/Virginia border. (5)


III. People Associated with the Melungeons

A. Melungeons (Virginia and Tennessee) (1):
Melungeons or Ramps. — In the counties located in the extreme western corner of Virginia are to be found scattered groups of mixed-bloods called Melungeons or Ramps. These people roam the mountain regions of Virginia, southern West Virginia, Tennessee, and Kentucky. [They have recently been shown to be Saponi]. The Virginia Melungeons are found on the mountain ridges such as Copper Ridge, Clinch Ridge, and Powell Valley in Lee and Scott Counties, in the vicinity of Coeburn and Norton in Wise County, near Damascus in Washington County, and in the western Dismal area of Giles County. No estimate of their numbers is available but they probably amount to several thousands. They show dark skins with straight or curly black hair and high cheek bones. Formerly they lived by raising a little corn, hunting, fishing, digging roots, gathering herbs, and doing odd jobs for their neigh- bors. In recent years theyhave taken to mining and cultivation in the better areas of bottom lands. The chief family names of Melungeons in this area are Bolen, Collins, Gibson or Gipson, Freeman, Goins, and Sexton.


Lewis Jarvis article, as transcribed by William Grohse, historian of Hancock County, Tennessee
from the Hancock County Times, Sneedville, Tennessee, 17 April 1903. (11) In this article, Jarvis mentions the following Melungeon surnames;
“others not remembered”

I can think of a few more off the top of my head --

B. Magoffin County, Kentucky
Some 234 Indians were recorded for Kentucky in 1910. Later census figures do not enumerate as many. Most of the Indians enumerated were in Magoffin and Floyd Counties in the eastern part of the State.
In southern Kentucky on the Tennessee border (in Cumberland and Monroe Counties) is the Coe Clan, a mixed group of part-Indian descent. These people live on Pea Ridge along the Cumberland River in an area bounded partly by that river on the south and west, by Kettle Creek on the east, and Gudio Creek on the north.

They also lived in Breathett, Floyd, Lawrence and Johnson Counties in eastern Kentucky. (12)

Sizemore (12)

C. Carmel Indians (Ohio):
There were 435 Indians in Ohio in 1930, 6 percent pure-blood, 20.9 percent mixed, and 73.1 percent not recorded, according to the census. These returns show their presence mainly in the cities of the State, as in Cleveland (Cuyahoga County), Columbus (Franklin County), Cincinnati (Hamilton County), Toledo (Lucas County), and Akron (Summit County) . There were also a few Indians in rural Hardin County who may represent a survival from early times (a few refugees), in the Scioto marshes, and the settlement at Carmel.

There are a number of mixed-blood groups of part-Indian descent in Ohio who are not recorded in the census. The most notable of those is the Darke County mixed-blood group located near Tampico on the Indiana border about 40 miles northeast of Dayton, Ohio. This settlement dates back to the early nineteenth century, and members of the group still hold themselves apart from both Negroes and whites. At present they are said to number about 60 families, and they have their own schools and churches (Methodist).

Near the village of Carmel, Ohio, about 65 miles east of Cincinnati, there is a small group of mixed-blood Indians. They dated back to 1858, when a white man moved here from Virginia with a dozen Negro retainers about the time of the Civil War. The latter mixed with other people who had arrived not long before from Magoffin County in eastern Kentucky and who were reputedly of Indian descent. The present-day Carmel Indians live in shacks on the farmers' lands, where they provide occasional labor and subsist by hunting, sale of ginseng and yellow root, and by their scant stock of chickens and pigs. A few own small plots but the rest have been said to be on relief recently. Many migrated from the area during World War II, but about 50 still remain in the neighborhood. The family names are Nichols, Gibson, and Perkins.


A source listed the following surnames online --

CORE FAMILY NAMES: Burnett, Chavis/Chavers/Shavers, Coker, Croker, Craddolph, Dungey, Harris, Howell, Long, Marsh, McKeel/Keel/Keels, Scott, Stewart.

Core simply meaning most prominent and frequent surnames in our Ohio, Indiana, Michigan communities.

EXTENDED FAMILY NAMES (partial list): Allen, Anderson, Archer, Artis, Ayers, Bass, Beverly, Bolling/Bowling, Branham/Brandon, Bray, Brown, Bunch, Byrd/Bird, Canaday/Kennedy, Cole, Collins, Corn, Cousins, Croston, Dalton/Dorton, Day, Dempsey, Dixon, Evans/Epps, Gallimore (associated Peppers), Garland, Gibson, Goings/Goins/Gowens, Griffin, Guy, Haithcock, Hart, Haskins, Hawk, Hawkins, Hawley, Hedgepeth, Henson, Holly, Hughes, James, Jeffries/Jeffreys, Johnson, Jones, Keeton, Kersey, Liggins, Locklear, Lucas, Lynch, Martin, Mason, Matthews, Male (Mayle, Mail), Mayo, McDaniel, McKinney, Minor, Moss, Newman, Nichols, Norman, Norris, Oxendine, Parker, Perkins, Pettiford, Penn/Pinn, Pompey, Powell, Ragland, Redman, Rickman, Richardson, Robbins, Robinson, Saunders, Sanders, Sexton, Shepherd, Shumake, Simmons, Sizemore, Spears, Stills, Taborn, Tan, Thacker, Tyler, Upthegrove, Valentine, Vaughn, Viney, Watkins, Watson, Whitt, Winborn. 

D. Guineas (West Virginia):
As in previous cases mentioned, the census does not recognize any Indian groups in West Virginia. However, there is a fair-size group of people centering in northern Barbour and southern Taylor Counties in the northeastern part of the State who may lay claim to at least part-Indian ancestry.
These are the "Guineas" whose numbers may range up to 6,000 or 7,000. Small groups of these people are to be found in six or seven other counties in northern West Virginia, in parts of western Maryland, in cities of eastern and northern Ohio (such as Zanes- ville) and in Detroit.
The Guineas present the usual variety found in mixed-bloods, but the white and Indian seem to be most prominent. They have their own Methodist churches and attend segregated schools which are locally classed as "colored." As a class they stay apart from both whites and Negroes and are characterized by the following family names: Adams, Collins, Croston, Dalton, Kennedy, Mayle, Newman, Norris, and Prichard. Their racial classification has furnished considerable difficulty to the local authorities.

Dalton (Dorton).
Male or Mayle.
Miner or Minear.

IV. Monacans

A. Issues (Virginia):
Piedmont and Blue Ridge Indian mixed-bloods. — Beginning with Rappahannock County in the north and continuing southward along the Blue Ridge through Rockbridge and Amherst Counties and striking directly southward to Halifax County on the North Carolina border we find small colonies of mixed people who claim Indian descent and are most generally called Issues.

This group of about 500 or 600 mixed-bloods is located in the central part of Amherst County about 4 or 5 miles west of the county seat. The principal settlements are on Bear Mountain and Tobacco Row Mountain in the Blue Ridge. At the extreme western end of the county is another mixed group of similar origin derived from Indian, white, and, in some localities, Negro blood. An Episcopal mission for the Issues is located 3 miles west of Sweet Briar College and comprises a school and other facilities.

The typical Issue is a very rich brunette with straight black hair and Caucasian features. The chief family names are Adcox, Branham, Johns, Redcross, and Willis. In the bottoms the Issues raise tobacco, while on the slopes corn and oats are cultivated. They are mostly renters and truck farmers. The white neighbors of these people are said to regard them as mulattoes. The term "Issue" is applied to mixed-bloods of the same type in many of the counties of Virginia.


B. Brown People of Rockbridge County, Virginia
To the northwest of Amherst County in Rockbridge County is a small group located on Irish Creek, not more than 12 miles east of Lexington, Va., and called Brown People. Their number is estimated as over 300 and they show a mixture of white, Indian, and occasionally Negro blood. Like the Issues of Amherst County they are a group apart from both whites and Negroes.

No surnames mentioned

Catawban Peoples Surnames in Indian Territory/Oklahoma and Arkansas
Morgan (6)
Lerblanche -- Indian Pioneer Papers (7)
Gentry – Indian Pioneer Papers (7)
Kegg – (8)
Morrison (3)

Heads of 42 families in Qualla in 1848 (8)
Morrison (chief); 1 family
Kegg 4 families
Stevens 3 families
Heart 2 families
Scott 2 families
Kenty 3 families
George 6 families
Harris 8 families
Redhead 2 families
Ayers 5 families
Brown 3 families
Joe 3 families 

Catawba in Georgia (8)

Kentucky Melungeon Family Surnames Who Came or wanted to Come to Oklahoma Hoping to Be Treated as Indians (9)

Forrest Hazel listed some Occoneechhi/Saponi tried to sign up on Dawes or Guion-Miller as Cherokee (10)

The Research of Richard Haithcock
Richard Haithcock has done some excellent work researching the Saponi Indians. The following was gleaned from his writings.

Therefore I am just going to leave the surnames he came up with in one section alone. It is mostly in chronological order, and not by location

1677 Second Plantation Treaty
Saponi Chiefs
Monacan Chief
In 1714, Chiefs of the Saponi at Fort Christanna.
Tanhee Soka
A 1722 treaty mentions the following Saponi
Great George
John Sauano
Ben Harrison
Captain Tom
Pyah (probably Pryor, who is elsewhere mentioned)
Saponey Tom
Tony Mack
Harry Irvin

1738 -- Carlson says the following in his PhD Dissertation: “From 1738 on, the Orange County Court records mention various petitions from Alexander Maurchtoon, John Sauna, John Collins, John Bowling, and others, all of whom are described there specifically as “Christian Saponey Indians.” John Sauano/Sauna is mentioned in both the 1722 and 1738 accounts. (14)

1739 -- Saponi camp is mentioned, s. side Nuese River in Craven County, NC
1740 – Tutelo start their migration to Six Nations
1742 -- Saponi are mentioned on Orange County, Virginia
Captain Tom
Blind Tom
Foolish Zach
Little Zach
John Collins
Charles Griffen
Alexander Machartoon
John Bowling

1743 -- Per Carlson; "The Christian Saponi went south to live near Catawba lands, however by in 1745 they were back in Virginia, in Louisa County, near to their former lands in Orange County, in the mountains south of Rapidan Station. The Christian Saponi would reside in the area for some time and would be noted as “Nassayn” (Saponi for ‘the People’) on 1749-1750 era maps. Names listed living in this area are Sam and William Collins, along men named George and Thomas Gibson, Sam Bunch, Ben Branham, and a few others were charged with by Louisa County court of ‘concealing tithables’

1749 -- Johnson County, North Carolina, on the south side of the Nuese River, at a place called Powell's Run, a 'Saponi Camp' is mentioned
1753 – Tutelo join Six Nations.
1755 – Saponi Indians mentioned in Person Co., NC
1777 -- Saponi mixed bloods who are mentioned on militia rosters in 1777 during the American Revolution. surnames: 
In 1784, some old Saponi families are still living in Brunswick County, Virginia, near the location of the former Fort Christana. Surnames:
1827 -- Hathcock mentions the following:
“The Saponi/Christanna Indians by 1827 were being documented or recorded as Catawba by their friends, neighbors and officials in the Department of the interior. He provides 2 quotes. I.] “If they descended from Indians at all, they were likely Catawba and lived in Eastern North Carolina.” and ii.] “It is a region much more likely to have been occupied by Indians from Virginia or by the Catawba Indians who ranged from South Carolina up through North Carolina into Virginia.” He mentions the surnames of these families;

Saponi names mentoned by Richard Hathcock
Heathcock mentions some 79 Saponi names. Some are full names, some are just given, and some are just surnames. Here is that list:
Chief Mastegonoe, Chief Manehip, Chief Chawka, Chief Tanhee, Seko, Chief Tom, Chief John Harris, Captain Harrry, Captain Tom (Chief Tom and Captain Tom are perhaps the same person), Ned Bearskin, Ben Bear Den, Pyah, Pryor (probably the same), Manniassa, Dick, Harry (perhaps the same as Captain Harry), Isaac, Tom (perhaps the same as captain or Chief Tom), Lewis Anderson, Thomas Anderson,Isham Johnson, Will Matthews, Isaac White) perhaps the same as 'Isaac'), John Hart, Carter Hedge Beth, Sepunis, Cornelious Harris, John Collins, Lewis Collins, Mullins, Charles Griffin, Absalon Griffin, Hannah Griffin, John Sauano, Saponey Tom, Alexander Marchartoon, John Bowlinig, Ben Harrison, Tony Mack, Great George, Little Zach, Blind Tom, Foolish Zach, Hary Irwin, Tom Irwin, John Austin, Sr and Jr, Richard Austin, Tutterow, Dempsey, Miles Bunch, William Thims, Christopher Thims, John Head, Isaac Head, Heathcock, Jeffryes, Guy, Whitmore, Robinson, Carr, Ford, Long, Rickman, Coker, Jones, Richardson, Mills, Stewart, Going, Jackson, Thore, Williams, Branham, Johns, and Coleman. Now these are in addition to some of those already mentioned that are not mentioned here. (13)

(1) "Annual Report of the Board of Regents of THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION Showing the Operations y Expenditures , and Condition of the Institution for the Year Ended June 30, 1948; APPENDIX III. FAMILY NAMES OF EASTERN INDIAN GROUPS.
(2) "Catawba Indian Genealogy"; by Ian Watson; The Geneseo Foundation and the Department of Anthropology State University of New York at Geneseo; Geneseo, New York 14454 Series Editor: Russell A. Judkins; Copyright © Ian Watson 1995
(3)  “A Guide to the Indian Tribes of Oklahoma”, by Muriel Hazel Wright; published by University of Oklahoma Press; copyright © by University of Oklahoma Press, 1951, 1986.
4. “The Lumbee Problem – The Making of an American Indian People”; by Karen I. Blu; © 1980 by Karen I. Blu; originally published 1980 Cambridge University Press; afterwards © Nebraska University Press 2001, all rights reserved.
5. OCCANEECHI-SAPONI DESCENDANTS IN THE NORTH CAROLINA PIEDMONT: THE TEXAS COMMUNITY by Forest Hazel. Of Mr. Hazel, the following has been written; “The first paper is by Forest Hazel, a health education advisor with a background in anthropology.  Hazel examines the historical records pertaining to the Occaneechi Indians, known to have lived in the vicinity of present-day Hillsborough, North Carolina, at the beginning of the eighteenth century.  As such, his research has direct ties to the archaeological studies of the Siouan Project conducted by the Research Laboratories of Anthropology, UNC-Chapel Hill (Dickens et al. 1987; Ward and Davis 1988).  Hazel traces the Occaneechi from 1701 to the present, providing a link between the archaeological and living populations.”  
6. go here -- and enter as “guest”. Scroll down to #86, “Native American documents”. Southeastern Native American Documents, 1730-1842, contains approximately 2,000 documents and images relating to the Native American population of the Southeastern United States from the collections of the University of Georgia Libraries, the University of Tennessee at Knoxville Library, the Frank H. McClung Museum, the Tennessee State Library and Archives, the Tennessee State Museum, the Museum of the Cherokee Indian, and the LaFayette-Walker County Library. The documents are comprised of letters, legal proceedings, military orders, financial papers, and archaeological images relating to Native Americans in the Southeast. About the image at left.
7. In the 1930s a Dust Bowl era project was begun to record what life was like in the Indian Territory (Oklahoma) before Oklahoma became a state.
8. 54th Congress; Senate Document #144, 1897
9. “Whose Your People?” – Dr. Richard Carlson PhD dissertation
10. “Various Eastern Siouan Communities” by Forest Hazel
11.  The surnames are mentioned in his 1903 newspaper article. He wrote that to counter the false stories that the Melungeons were Portuguese. William Grohse, transcriber of the newspaper article, was to have reported that Lewis Jarvis was a leading lawyer from Sneedyville in Northeast Tennessee. He said Jarvis was born in Scott County, in Southwestern Virginia, on October 26th, 1829. Jarvis wrote of the Melungeons; “They have been misrepresented by many writers.” Jarvis wanted to set the record straight and let people know who they really were. He also wrote; “They had lost their language and spoke the English very well. They were the friendly Indians who came with the whites as they moved west. They came from the Cumberland County and New River, Va., stopping at various points west of the Blue Ridge. Some of them stopped on Stony Creek, Scott County, and Virginia, where Stony Creek runs into Clinch river.” He also said of the Melungeons; “The white emigrants with the friendly Indians erected a fort on the bank of the river and called it Fort Blackmore and here yet many of these friendly “Indians” live in the mountains of Stony Creek, but they have married among the whites until the race has almost become extinct. A few of the half-bloods may be found - none darker . . .”
12.  Monday, 7th of October, 1901, “The Tennessean”, page 8, a newspaper out of Nashville, Tn.
13. “Tutelo, Saponi,Nahyssan, Monacan; a.k.a.; Piedmont Catawba Tribe of the Ohio Valley, Virginia, Carolina, New York, Pennsylvania, and Six Nations, Ontario, Canada” by Richard Haithcock, publication date November 11, 2004.
14. "Where's Your People?"; a PhD Dissertation given by Dr. Richard Carlson.