The Indian Slave Trade. Part 2
There is an implication that the Westo might have been of Iroquan stock. (1) Gallay states, “The Iroquois . . . frequently travelled South, and the assembly believed that they were allied with the remaining Westo.” It is interesting that the Yamassee were also thought to be Iroquoan. (2) Anderson and Lewis say, “Yamassee speak the same language as the Lower Cherokee, but they picked up a different language when driven out of the Caarolinas.” The Tuscarora were also of the same family, the Iroquian.
The above is interesting because you don't just 'pick up another language' that easily. What if their language was always a Siouan language, from the Carolinas? He also speaks of the Savannah selling captired Cherokee as slaves on the markets of Charleston.
Gallay states that carolina began to use Indians to catch runaway slaves. “Escaped slaves who lived outside government authorities, known as maroons, had the potential to incite free Indians and enslaved Indians and Africans to destroy the colony.”
One more item on this page is of interest. Indians who lived near the English settlers were called “Settlement Indians”. These Indians were to provide wildlife for the settlers. (3) Punishment for those who refused to labor for the colony was a severe whipping, and “nations” who refused compliance were to be placed “outside the protection of the government, which invariably meant they would be subject to enslavement.”
Now most tribes were in actuality a confederation of many nations, with a similar language and ethnc origin. These various ethnicities would often (not always) go to war together, and unite at times of trouble. But theywould also on occasion, maybe go to war with one another. But for the most part, they allied themselves together. Gallay touches on this a little. (4). “The equation of ethnicity with nationhood is a modern construct used by people to lay claim to land. The deprivation of land by the later United States government forced Indians to give greater weight to a tribal identity than that identity otherwise deserved. Those who could not show specific identity in a tribal group were denied land and status as Indians.”
Gallay adds (5) that thousands of Indians had been “killed, enlaved or displaced” from the Carolina's to the Mississippi in the American Southeastern states, by about the year of 1700.
The Golden Age of the American Indian Slave Trade
I hate calling this a “Golden Age”, but it is accurate. This also resulted in the end of the slave trade. Not because people decided it just wasn't moral, but rather because they ran out of Indians to enslave. It als resulted in the Indians feeling disperate, resulting in both the Tuscarora and Yamassee Wars of @ 1711-1717.
Per Gallay (6.), In the first decade of the 18th century, slavers stepped up their attacks by organizing both large armies and small raiding parties that scoured the countryside in search of prey. Thomas Nairne participated in at least one of these raids, and left a record of it. He went with thirty three Yammassee Indians to Florida“to go a slave catching.” At a place south of Orlando, they captured some Indian slaves, were attacked by a large body of poorly armed Indians, repulsed the attack. (7) They speak of most of the Indians they attacked were allies of the French or Spanish, but adds “Not all of the Indians enslaved were allied with either the french or the Spanish.” That leaves only the allies of the English themselves. They enslaved some of their own allies as well. Indian slaves were sold in the West Indes.
Both the Chickasaw and the Yamassee had been used for years as their slave catchers. For years, the traders had abused their Indian allies, especially the Tuscarora and Yamassee. However as the Savanna and the Westo had once been the lsave traders to the English and had become expendable, the same was becoming true with the Yammassee.
Another well known slave trader was James Moore, Governor of South Carolina from eptember 1700 until March 1703. (7) Per Gallay, Moore was “one of the colony's largest slave traders. He proposeda conquest of Spanish Florida, largely because he wanted to enslave the Indian population of Florida. Moore invaded Florida, and laid siege to St. Augustine, his troops ariving in September 1702. Spanish reinforcements from Havana arrived, forcing the English to back off. Many Carolinians signed a petition to the effect that Moore was so obsessed with enslaving Florida's Indians, that he scared off local Indians from any desire to trade furs and other items to the Carolinians. Gallay states (8) “Moore granted commissions to whites to capture Indians for the slave trade . . . noone promoted and pursued the capture and sale of Indians more that Moore. . . . He embarked on a campaign to enslave thousands more . . .
The Wars Against the Appalachee, and Other Florida Indians 1702-1706
The next tribe to be destroyed and enslaved was the Apalachee. (9) After Moore's term as governor was over, he was still allowed to gather the colony's “friendly Indians” to accompany him on a mission to again enter Florida for plunder.. The governor refused to fund his campaign, saying that the plunder they took was to be their payment. Of course most of their plunder was in the form of Indian slaves. Moore's troops fell on the Appalachee of Northwestern Florida, raiding the missions the Spanish had set up for them in January of 1704. Many of the Appalachee ere enslaved, and others forced to resettle on the Savannah River, near their captors, the Yammassee. So Moore's reputation was recouped. (10) It is difficult to know just how many were enslaved in this War. It appears to be between one and four thousand. In September 1704 a second raid of the Apalachee by the Creek Indians resulted in a further lessening of their numbers. Two thousand were said to have to been forced into exile, presumably deeper into the swamps of Florida. Reports smply say an undetermined number were enslaved. The English had armed the Creeks that attacked the Appalachee, however the Spanish had refused to arm their Apalachee allies, resulting in their completely distruction, and ruin as a people.
'(11) It was said about 2,000 Apalachee were forced into exile, however a census in 1708 of the Apalachee living on the Savannah River listed only 638. Per Gallay, the remainder were most likely sold into slavery. But remember the second expedition, the Lower Creek expedition, against the Apalachee. Gallay suspects there might have been as many as 4,000 Appalachee taken in both expeditions. He also says Gallay points out there were additional expeditions into Northern Florida against the Appalachee and others, in 1705 and 1706. In 1705, the Timucuan Missions in Florida were wiped out by the Carolinians and their Indian allies. This opened the way for the Carolinians and their Indian allies to destroy the Calusa, near Tampa Bay, and there are records of raids as far south as the Florida Keys. Spanish Florida was reduced to the areas around St. Augustine and Pensacola.
Both the French and Spanish became alarmed at the agression of the Carolinians, and in late August, 1706 a combined french and Spanish expedition came against the Carolinians. While they awaited the arrival of a french warship 'La Brilliante', the Carolinians attacked them, with several killed and others captured. The remainder fled. A few days after this, the French reinforcements arrived. They were several days late because they mistakenly landed north of Carleston. On their second attempt they landed south of Charleston. The English defeated them as well. At the end of this battle, the English had captured 320 Franco-Spanish prisoners. These were taken to Virginia and transported back to England. There were about 100 Americans also captured. They were kept, and sold as slaves.
From the years 1702-1706, the American Southeast had changed for ever. Most of Florida's Indian population was either dead or enslaved. Although there were still American Indians in Florida, their power was never again a bother to anyone. A combined French and Spanish had attempted to conquer Carolina, but had failed miserably. The French retreated to Louisiana, and there were really only two Spanish strongholds left in Florida, St. Augustine and Pensacola.
A Little About The Catawba and Associated Bands
The only reason I am conducting this research is because of the Eastern Souan Peoples, the Catawba and Associated bands. First, the Catawba are allied, in most occasions, with several other bands.
In 1708 the colony of South Carolina took a census of Whites, Negroes, and enslaved Indians. The result was 9, 580. The colony said thepopulation was evenly divided between Whites and Blacks, who made up 42.5% of the population ecah. Enslaved American Indians made up the remaininf 15%. That adds up to 1,437. Most Indian slaves it was said, were shipped to the West Indes. There would have been about 4,100 Whites and the same number of Blacks. This census does not include FREE Indians. As a result of two more wars, the number of FREE Indians was to decline rgeatly, and more Elglish were constantly arriving.
In the same report in 1708 that includes the 1708 census, we have the following; (13) “The report explained the growth of the colony's Indian slave population as a result of 'our late late conquest over the French and Spaniards and the success of ou forces over the Appalaskye and othr Indian engagements.' But it noted as a mattr of course the colony's export of Indian slaves, as part of its ordinary trade.” Gallay continued, “We have also commerce with Boston, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New York and Virginia, to which places we export Indian slaves.”
Several Indian communities are mentioned as upon the Savannah River; the Yamassee, Apalachee, Apalachicola, Shawnee, and others. These are simply remnants of once greater nations.
Throughout Gallay's accounts, he mentions others Indians engaged in the slave trade, particularly the Chickasaw. However since my interest is primarily on the effects of slave trading on the Indians of the Carolinas, I have omitted these accounts from my report.
A census from 1715 by Barnwell (14) gives an interesting picture of the total numbers of Piedmont Indians, whom I usually refer to as “Catawba and Assocuated Bands.”
Catawba – 1470 in 7 villages
Saraw – 510 in 1 village
Waccamaw – 610 in 4 villages
Cape Fear – 206 in 5 villages
Santee – 103 in 2 villages
Congaree – 22 (women and children not included, total maybe 60?), in 1 village
Wereaw, 106 in 1 village
Sewee, – 57 in 1 village
Itwan – 240 in 1 village
Corsaboy – 295 in 5 villages
The last two are what they called “Settlement Indians”. However they were probably Eastern Siouan, as that was part of their homeland. Notice in 1708 they had over 1,400 settlement Indians. Many of these numbers at best, are approxomations. Perhaps these are the numbers added, but some were on hunting parties, or simply not available to be counted. Some are not mentioned at all, the Eno, the Saxapahaw, and others. Maybe they didn't want the English to know their exact numbers. Also there is no mention of the Saponi and associated bands who lived in southeastern Virginia at the time. The numbers of the eastern Siouans listed above adds up to 3,657. If you add those in Virginia and those not mentioned at all, the total is only about 4,500 perhaps or 5,000 tops, and that's stretching it a bit. When I speak of the “Catawba and Associated Bands”, these ar ethe people to whom I am referring. Gallay confirms some of the Piedmont Indians could have been miscounted. He states (15) ; “The Piedmont and Low country Indians had a distinct talent for “lying low” and avoided contact with Europeans when it suited them. Lying low was a strategy practiced by the Indians for the next 150 years., and it played a role in their survival . . . Europeans rarely knew where these Indians were.”
Many of the Savannah (Shawnee) Indians from the Savannah River went north to life in Pennsylvania. Now the author Gallay never mentions a band of the Chickasaw, who were the buggest of the Indian slave traders, that moved to be closer to the the slave buyers, on the Savannah River.
Gallay mentions a war between the Catawba and Associated Bands and the Savannah, whose modern counterpatrts are the Shawnee. He tells of the Governor of Pennsylvania speaking to some of the Shawnee who migrated up north, leaving the Savannah River behind them. Per Gallay, one of the Shawnee told the governor (16), “450 Catawba had beseiged them. The Catawba was the name the English used to describe many of the Piedmont Indian groups of both South and North Carolina. A trader who acted as interpreter added that the Savannah had killed some Christians, which lead the Carolina government which set the catawba upon them under the leadership of 'some Christians.” Continuing, “The Catawba, under Carolina beconing, had preyed on the Savannah [Shawnee], as its colony had [previously] done to its erstwhile ally, the Westo. . . the Savannah, probably in revenge, then attacked . . . the Catawba, and other Indians of the Piedmont, and they also carried many of our Indian slaves away with them.”
So the Carolinians are finally in a position to go on the offensive against their Indian neighbors. They had fought off the french and Spanish, and won. They had wiped out the most powerful Indian allies of the Spanish. They had enslaved many Indians, and several tribes had dissapeared – the Westo, the Apalachee, and the Shawnee had fled northwards. The Florida Indians were no more a threat. The only threats remaining were the Tuscarora, the Catawba and Piedmont Indians, and the Yamassee and assorted groups of remnant tribes along the Savannah River. Further inland were the Creek in Georgia and the Cherokee to the north of the Creek.
Since this is about the Catawba and Associated Bands, I'll quote Gallay. (17) “With so many high government officials involved in the Indian trade and illegal activities, and with carolina officials history of arresting opponents, under dubious, false and sometimes illegal pretenses (which continued through the next decade), . . . traders had every reason to demand protection. Bull [A trader] appeared in September of 1707 and reported that he had learned from the Shuteree, a Piedmont group, that 130 Indians, calling themselves Savannas, and Sen'atuees [Vance's note:Gallay suggests these to be Santees, but I suspect he is referring to Seneca].”fell on them.” Per Gallay, “Their bows and arrows on their backs were pointed with brass and iron.” Although the Savannah and Seneca were usually enemies of one another, they both had also been enemies of the Catawba, for generations. “The foprce caried away fourty-five, women and children, but mostly children. A Cheraw Indian . . . informed Bull [the trader] that the attackers traded with the White men at their own homes and that they lived but thirty days journey from us.” So a thirty days journey, per Gallay, puts these White men in Virginia, maryland or Pennsylvania.
Gallay continues to say that for the first time, 50 flintock guns were sent to the Piedmont Indians. But what value can you place on a mere 50 of such weapons? He says these Indians continued to make raids on the Piedmot Indians. It appears raids started about 1707, but it is hard to say. After all the other neighboring Indians had been anihillated, they are finally thinking about getting rid of the tribes closest to them. About this times the Northern Piedmont tribes, the Saponi, Monacan, Tutelo and others, come fleeing out of the words to the Virginia coastline, asking for refuge. They are moved to Fort Christanna, where they become referred to as simply “Saponi”. This helps clear the regions of Western Virginia as suitable fr White settlement, but there are still the Piedmont Indians of the Carolinas, the Tuscarora of Eastern North Carolina, and the Yammasse Indians and remnants of once more powerful nations living along the Savannah River, as obsticals to White Settlement in the Carolinas. Gallay says about a third of the Savannah remained on the Savannah River, but adds, those who left [the Shawnee who fled to Pennsylvania] “Those who left would continue their attacks on the Piedmont peoples.”
Throughout this entire time, the Indians were also raviged by small pox, and traders or settlers occasionally simply took Indians illegally as slaves. Indians were constantly complaining to government officials about traders cheating them, or lying to them, and nothing was done to protect them.
Even in this era, Indians were still being sent out to gather other Indians as slaves, by the traders. Gallay comments on this, saying (18), “. . .the evils he noted he noted in this and other letters concerning the enslavement of peaceful Indians . . . threatened the harmony of the province . . . I hear that our confederate Indians”are now sent to war by our by our traders to get slaves.” This basically means the Indians owed so much money to the traders, that the traders told them if they gathered other slaves, their debts would be lowered. So Indians were sent to gather other Indian slaves, pitting village against village. I suspect most of the time, they went against enemy tribes, ut still, you know ALL American Indians must have lived in fear of being either killed or captured for their value as slaves.
The next few years saw abuse after abuse of the American Indians, a gore of slave catching pitting tribe abainist tribe, until finally one tribe, the Tuscarora simply broke, and refused to continue. This resulted in the Tuscarora War.
The Tuscarora and Yammassee Wars 1711-1717
South Carolinians simply went wild in their attempts to make money catching and making slaves of Indian. Some Carolinians tried to make reforms in the government, but othrs sabatauged those attempts. Per Gallay (19) , “Those who fell victm to the slavers were usually shipped to distant colonies. To spend their days laboring for others with no hope of returning to their families and homes. Not that they passively accepted their condition: in several of the colonies the variously termed “Southern” or “Spanish” or “Carolina” Indians earned a reputation as troublemakers and instigators, leading several provential governments to bar their importation. Not that it mattered: in a few years South Carolina so alienated its allies that they banned together in a pan-Indian movement that ended the large-scale slaving of Native Peoples.”
The Tuscarora, who lived very near the settlers, simply had taken so much abuse, and couldn't hold it in, anymore. The Tuscarora at Hancock's town rebelled against their English neighbors, and most of the other Tuscarora came to Hancock's side. Gallay says that at the time of the first attacks, twelve Seneca were visiting the Tuscarora. The Seneca were allies of the Tuscarora. In the early days of the War, the Tuscarora and their allies killed many English setttlers and farmers, many of who had perhaps had not participaated in cheating and enslaving the Indians.
The role of the Seneca is evidence from the record of theBoston News Letter (20), “The Boston News Letter reported that the Tuscarora were put upon that bloody action (their attack upon North Carolina) by the Sinnecke Indians, one of out Five Nations”. The Tuscarora had put out feelers the previous year, letting the seneca and Five Nations known of their desire to return to the North, saying life in North Carolina was becoming impossible. In the end, only Blunt's Town was to remain.
South Carolina's reaction was to come to the aid of their neighbors, the North Carolinians. Under Barnwell, an army made up of many of the Piedmont Indians, together with those remnant peoples along the Savannah River, and an assortment of White South Carolinians, went under Barnwell to attack the Tuscarora. To make a long story short, they defeated the Tuscarora. The Carolinians were hoping to gather in many Tuscarora slaves, but to their displeasure, the Catawban peoples of the Piedmont gathered in most of the slaves, and sold them themselves to the Charlestown slave traders. This tells me they were most likely after revenge for slaves taken from their own people by the Tuscarora. In a second expedition in the following year, the power of the Tuscarora was broke, with many of their people fleeing northwards to join the Five Nations, making them now The Six Nations. They would remember the role played by the Piedmont Indians in their distruction. A small band of Tuscarora would remain in the South, but they were msall weak, and soon nearly forgotten by history. A tragic result of this war was the end of the Coree. They had allied themselves with the Tuscarora. The remaining Tuscarora as a sign they'd ceased their hostilities, went to their Coree allies, and delivered them all over to the Carolina government as slaves. The Yamassee and others had also gathered many Tuscarora slaves, and sold them to the Charleston Indian slave traders. The eastern part of North carolina now contained a hole in it, where the Tuscarora and Coree had once lived, To their immediate west in North Carolina were the Piedmont Indians, allies of the Catawba. These Indians were now the last obstical to settlers invading the region. Although these Indians had helped the Carolinians defeat the Tuscarora who had murdered many of hteir number, all the Carolinians could think of was once these Indians were gone, that land would be theirs. A peace was signed in 1715, and the issue was settled.
The Yamassee War
Shortly after this slaughter, the last enemies of the settlers were to vanish from the scene. Although it was called the Yamassee War, the Piedmont Indians were to vanish at the same time, with only small remnants to remain, here and there. After this war, we see only a few pockets here and there, of these tribes. One band or pocket, was to result in the peoples that later became known to be the Melungeons. This is the sole reason I have written these papers. I was so upset at the stupid writings you see abut the origins of the “Melungeons” – I was SCREAMING for the truth to be told, and not these IDIOTIC tales that they were a bunch of “Portuguese Adventurerists” or a “Lost African Tribe” or even lost Welshmen, lost Turks – I needed to show another, more realistic story. We are almost there. Finally!!
Gallay estimates, and his estimates are based on his research, the following (21);”All the evidence points to widespread enslavement from the 1670s through 1700. . . . It seems clear that, excluding the Creek, Savannah [Shawnee], Cherokee, Chickasaw, and Piedmont Indians, approximately 25 to 40 thousand southern Amerindians were enslaved. If we include the excluded people . . . we can include several thousand more. All told, thirty to fifty thousand is the likely range of Amerindians . . . enslaved BEFORE 1715. When speaking of Charleston, Gallay adds, “There may not have been a single year before 1715 (except 1714) when the number of slaves imported exceeded the number of Indians exported.” He calls Charlestown the “Ellis Island” for slaves entering America.
Many provinces (colonies) quit accepting slaves from the Carolona Indians, unfortunately too late to help them. Rhode Island and Connecticut passed laws in 1715 to prevent Carolina Indians taken captive as a result of the Yammassee War.
All of the Indians had been treated poorly. As in 1711 the Tuscarora could take no more, the Yammassee upon the Savannah had reached the same opinion on April 15th, 1715. There is a story of a Yammassee warrior that went to England in 1713 as told by Gallay (22), “The Society for Propogation of the Gospel had hoped that “Prince George”, as he was called in England, would become the means by which other Yamassee would be converted and Anglicized. By January, 1715 he had learned to read and write, been baptized by the Bishop of London, and met King George. The 'prince' returned to South Carolina during the war to find that his family had fled south. Later his family was captured and sold as slaves. The fate of the 'prince', left 'extremely sunk and dejected', is unknown.”
Not all historians agree that abuse is the reason the Yamassee went to war. They point to the census taken, and say they think the Indians thught they were about to be sold as slaves. However anyone afraid of being sold as a slave would only have that fear had they been mistreated, so the reason is mute.
The next paragraph from Gallay is EXTREMELY important with regards to the Catawba and Associated Bands. Gallay says (same page), “The smaller Indian groups of the South Carolina Costal Plain were too small and weak to attack their Carolina neighbors without the assistance of the Savannah River People – the Yamassee, the Apalachicola and the Apalachee. The last two and the . . . Piedmont peoples would not also have attacked Carolina without Yamassee asistance. These Piedmont Indians had just witnessed the power of the colony with its Yamassee allies against the Tuscarora and were also certainly aware of the power of Virginia. Many of these groups were coalescing with the Catawba, and in any war with the colony, they also had to fear the Europeans would call on the Catawba's ancient enemy, the Iroquois, and they could also face attacks from the Cherokee “
Continuing with the next paragraph (23), Gallay mentions a Virginia trader who told his story of why he thinks the Piedmont Indians went to war with the colony of South Carolina. He says, “What motivations would the Piedmont Indians have for joining the Yamassee? David Crowley, a Virginia trader among the [Piedmont] Indians and the Cherokee, addressed this question in an analysis he prepared for William Byrdto deliver to the Board of Trade and Plantations in London, before which they both appeared to discuss the war. . . . Crawley claimed that the Carolina traders did what they pleased among the Indians. Arrogantly lording over them by taking their animals and corn and physically abusing them.” He goes on to say the Carolina traders humiliated the Indians, forced them to bear loads in trade, without any compensation.
Gallay says, throughout his book, the oldest writings from South Carolina call the Piedmont Indians by the name of “Northern” or “Northwards” Indians. I know later documents from the next century they are referring to the Indians from New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio as the “Northwards” Indians. Perhaps since most of the Piedmont Indians are from North Carolina they are “North” of Charleston. Using his definition, we have (25); “. . .The [Piedmont Indians] with the Yamassee had attacked settlers and plantations whereas the Creek had only attacked traders. . . . the Yamassee War gradually ended as Carolinia made peace with most of the Indian groups by 1717, though the Yamassee and some of the Piedmont Peoples refused. Many of the Indians who had lived near Carolina moved away,
The Indian slave trade abruptly came to an end. I think though, that Gallay misses the point. Those Indians didn't just “move away” from Carolina. Their Piedmont bands simply no longer existed as viable bands of Indians, bands of the Catawba. Their numbers had dwindled to just a few dozen families, each. By 1720 there were few Indians still left in the Carolinas. You also hear very little about the remnant bands upon the Savannah River. Both Carolinas were now open to White Settlement.
About this time we also hear of the Saponi and remnant bands associated with them. These were in Southren Virginia, but occasionally moved in with the Catawba, as they were the same people.
Map of the Region Before the Tuscarora and Yamassee Wars
Map of the Region Before the Tuscarora and Yamassee Wars
Indian Tribes of the Carolina's After the Tuscarora and Yamassee Wars
'(1.) p. 94, Gallay
'(2.) 269, Anderson and Lewis
'(3.) p. 95, Gallay
'(4.) p. 112, 113, Gallay
'(5.) p. 126, Gallay
'(6.) p. 127, Gallay
'(7.) p. 135-6, Gallay
'(8.) p. 137, Gallay
'(9.') p. 144, Gallay
'(10.) p. 145-147, Gallay
'(11.) p. 148, Gallay
'(12.) p. 152-152, Gallay
'(13) p. 200-201, Gallay
'(14) p. 206, Gallay
'(15) p. 15, Gallay
'(16.) p. 210-211, Gallay
'(17.) p. 211, Gallay
'(18.) p. 239, Gallay
'(19.) p. 257-258, Gallay
'(20.) p. 265, Gallay
'(21.) p. 298-9, Gallay
'(22.) p. 328, Gallay
'(23.) p. 331, Gallay
'(24.) p. 338), Gallay