Friday, April 21, 2017

Catawba Rulers

Catawba Rulers

This is nowhere near being finished. Someone asked me to do this and since I said I'd do it, I will. It has nothing to do with the Relationship between the "Melungeons and the Saponi or the Catawba, or the Catawba and Associated Bands who came to Oklahoma or Arkansas, which I'd considered the scope of my research. I guess that will change. :) I thank the person that got me interested in this project.

1540 – Lady of Cofitachique – de Soto – captured and escaped
1670 – Canos of Cofitachique

1717 – Whitmannetaughehee
After the end of the Yamassee War the Catawba agreed to send 11 young men of the royal line to a school at Ft. Christanna. Whitman-ne-tau-ghe-hee was chief at this time. “Tee-hee” in Cherokee means “killer”. I wonder if “Ghe-hee” is similar in the Catawba tongue? Eleven boys were delivered to Fort Christanna in April 1717 (Haigler, p. 32). Hmmm . . . as I write, it is April 2017 – perhaps 300 years to the day, later. When I first saw his nmae Whitman-ne-tau-ghe-hee – I thought the “Whitman” part of his name was of English origin. But Brown provides alternate spellings – Wick-mau-na-tan-chee, Will-man-nan-tamgh-kee, and Wich-me-tan-che. He delivered 11 Catawba children of her chiefs as hostages to the Virginia governor after the end of the Yamassee War, dated April 15, 1717. I am writing this on the 14th, so tomorrow it will have been EXACTLY 300 years sine that event. Brown says in his cabin were over 200 scalps. He became known as a legendary warrior. It is said he killed seven Seneca but eventually was captured by them who took him to New York to be tortured. However he escaped, and returned home. He was also called Austuga or Sapona, and he ruled the Catawba about 1720. There is an implication here that he might have been Saponi

This story is also told in the “Cherokee Phoenix”.; Cherokee Phoenix and Indians' Advocate; Wednesday, March 25, 1829; Vol. II, no. 2; Page 2, col. 1a
For a Warrior or a chief, their exploits are to be made known. For an enemy to tell the tale, it is more honor still. Here is what the Cherokee said of this man in “The Cherokee Phoenix” over a hundred years after his deeds were performed.


 Of the active as well as the passive fortitude of the Indian character, the following is an instance related by Adair in his travels.

 A party of the Seneca Indians came to war against the Ka-tah-be, or Catawba, bitter enemies to each other. In the woods the former discovered a sprightly warrior belonging to the latter, hunting in their usual light dress; on his perceiving them, he sprang off for a hollow rock four or five miles distant, as they intercepted him from running homeward. He was so extremely swift and skilful with the gun, as to kill seven of them in the running fight before they were able to surround and take him. They carried him to their country in sad triumph; but though he had filled them with uncommon grief and shame for the loss of so many of their kindred, yet the love of martial virtue induced them to treat him, during their long journey with a great deal more civility than if he had acted the part of a coward. The women and children when they met him at their several towns, beat and whipped him in as severe manner as the occasion required, according to their law of justice, and at last he was formally condemned to die by the fiery torture. It might reasonably be imagined that what he had for sometime gone through by being fed with a scanty hand, a tedious march, lying on the bare ground at night, exposed to the changes of the weather, with his arms and legs extended in a pair of rough stocks, and suffering such punishments on entering their hostile towns, as a prelude to those sharp torments for which he was destined, would so have impaired his health, and effected his imagination as to have sent him to his long sleep, out of the way of more sufferings. Probably this would have been the case with the major part of white people under similar circumstances; but I never knew this with any of the Indians; and this cool headed, brave warrior did not deviate from their rough lessons of martial virtue, but acted his part so well as to surprise and sorely vex his numerous enemies; for when they were taking him unpinioned, in their wild parage, to the place of torture, which lay near to a river, he suddenly dashed down those who stood in his way, sprung off and plunged into the water, swimming underneath like and otter, only rising to take breath, till he reached the opposite shore. He now ascended the steep bank; but though he had good reason to be in a hurry, as many of the enemy were in the water, and other running, very like blood hounds, in pursuit of him, and the bullets flying around him from the time he took the river, yet his heart did not allow him to leave them abruptly without taking leave in a formal manner, in return for the extraordinary favors they had done and intended to do him. After his slapping a part of his body in defiance to them, he put up the shrill war-whoop as his last salute, till some more convenient opportunity offered, & darted in the manner of a beast broke loose from its torturing enemies. He continued his speed so as to run by about midnight of the same day as far as his pursuers were two days in reaching. There he rested, till he happily discovered five of those Indians who pursued him. He lay hid a little way off their camp till they were sound asleep. Every circumstance of his situation occurred to him and inspired him with heroism. He was naked, torn and hungry, and his enraged enemies were come up with him-but there was everything to relieve his wants, and a fair opportunity to save his life, and get great honor and sweet revenge by cutting them off. Resolution, a convenient spot, and sudden surprise, would effect the main object of his wishes, and hopes. He accordingly creeped [sic], and took one of their tomahawks, and killed them all on the spot, clothed himself, took a choice gun, and as much ammunition and provisions as he could well carry in a running march. He set of afresh with a light heart, & did not sleep for several processive nights, only when he reclined as usual, a little before day, with his back to a tree. As it were by instinct when he found he was free from the pursuing enemy, he made directly to the very place where he had killed seven of his enemies, and was taken for the fiery torture. He digged[sic] them up, burnt their bodies to ashes and went home in safety with singular triumph. Other pursuing enemies came on the evening of the second day, to the camp of their dead people, when the sight gave them a greater shock than they had ever known before.- In their chilled war Council they concluded, that as he had done such surprising things in his defence before he was captivated, and since in his naked condition, and now was well armed, if they continued the pursuit, he would spoil them all, for he surely was an enemy wizard; and therefore they returned home.


Cherokee Nation, 11th March 1829

1739 – Otano
Brown says ("The Catawba Indians, People of the River", p220); "Ozato" or "Ozusta" may have served briefly as Catawba King. On July 6th, 1738, Secretary  Hammerton listed a six pound item, To a Commission and the great seal for King for Ozato, John Harris, Enos Jemmy Warriour, and Captain Tom.

Brown mentions a little bit about each one of these men. I find it very interesting. Of Eno Jemmy, he says, "The Eno tribe was incorporated with the Catawba. But others have said they incorporated with the Saponi or one of the others whose numbers had dropped drastically. Brown quotes something from "Hammerton's Public Documents, 1741/1742. He says "Four Years later (March 6, 1742), Hammerton commissioned two Pedee Kings, a War Captain for each, and Eno Jemy of Charrow in the Catabau."

About John Harris, he writes; "John Harris may have been the Cheraw King commissioned three months later with Iscoountgonita.

We have interesting information about Captain Tom as well. Brown says, also p. 220, "Captain Tom is listed as a Catawba headman." Brown contiinues in the note section: "On Jan. 5, 1740 Hammerton issued Indian commissions to Captain Tom and Donpaint Jack, Wateree Indians. A Captain Tom was listed as headman with the Catawba King Essetaswa in the S. C. Council Journal, Sep 5, 1749. This king is not listed with the Catawba kings. And that is an interesting name. The Catawban Bands were sometimes called "Yesah" or "Iswa" or "Esaw". This kings name is like repeating that term twice. If I were to say "Esaw-Iswa", isn't that similar to this kings name, "Esse-aswa"?

Captain Tom is also an interesting name. There was also a Captain Tom listed amongst the Saponi duing this same timeframe. Normally I'd say "Tom" is a common name, there were two of them. However the Catawba bands totalled a very small number in those days. And they both carried the rank of "Captain". Another thing that makes me think this is not just a coincidence is the fact that these references of "Captain Tom" are ALL within the same timeframe of a few years in the 1740s, not before or after.  So we have the following record in Virginia 1742; "Alexander Machartoon, John Bowling, Manicassa, Capt. Tom, Isaac, Harry, Blind Tom, Foolish Jack, Charles Griffin, John Collins, Little Jack. Saponi Indians being brought before the court by precept under the hands and seals of Wm Russell & Edward Spencer, Gent. for terrifying one Lawrence Strother and on suspicion of stealing hoggs........" Orange county, VA (Orange Co..VA Order Book 3 1741-1743. 309) Orange Co Va Microfilm Reel 31, Va. So there was a "Captain Tom" amongst the Saponi in Virginia. Peple who say the Saponi and the Catawba are separate people are just wrong. The Saponi, the Cheraw, the Pedee, the Catawba and others are all part of the same people. The title of "Captain" meant you were a "headman" of the Catawba. Hopefully someone will read this and do the appropriate research and determine more about our Captain Tom. This band is the one later determined to have been the Melungeons, further proof they were a part of Band of the Catawba known as the Saponi

A couple of other chiefs are listed by Brown during this same timeframe, still on page 220. He speaks of Capt. Twenty of ye Pedees, Captain Jeamy of Sugar Town, Capt. Jack of Soutry Town, Capt Peter of Weaupee Town, and Capt. Jeamy Harris of Old Sugar Town. I suspect "Soutry Town" is better known as"Sutteree Town". Captain Jack was most likely Chief or headman of Suteree Town. These are communities listed on records and old maps.

1740 – Iscountgonita,
Recorded to 1741, may have ruled longer. But I have only found this one reference in Brown's book that mentions this man. I know little about him. If you discover more, please let me know.

1746 – Yanabe Yalengway, recorded to 1753
He was apparently known as “Youug Warrior”. George Haig persuaded the Catawba to surrender one of their warriors for rape of a White woman. He was surrendered and convicted of the crime. Governor Glen then pardoned him. In 1744 some Notchee warriors killed some Catawba (“The Catawba Indians, People of the River”, by Douglas Summers Brown, pp. 222-4), including “Captain Jack” (South Carolina Council Journal, XI, pt. II, pp. 427, 477). The South Carolina government intervened, and told the Notche King to surrender the murderers. All parties knew a war, possible to exterminaton, might develop. The Notche king delivered the heads of two of his warriors over to the Governor Glan, who in turn returned them to Young Warrior. Yanube Yalongway also withheld vengeance when some Chickasaw Warriors captured some Catawba women and children. Governor Glen, Brown says, “was able to bring about the return of the kidnappers” He adds that Mr. Haig was able to return one of the captors to the Nation.

South Carrolina Governor Glen (South Carolina Gazette, 2Jun1746) is reported as saying; “The Charrows [were] a pretty numerous tribe who had been incorporated with his [Young Warrior's] Nation before he was born . . . (South Carolina Public Records, B. P. R. O. XXIV, 414.). Two versions of this story wxist, one where the Catawba king is referred to as “Young Warrior, the other calls him “Yanube Yelangway. The story goes that both the Pedee and Charrows were thinking of leaving the Catawba Nation. Governor Glen persuades them to remain by showing them how easy it was to break a single stick, then a second time uses a bundle of sticks which could not be broken – they are stronger together.

Brown, like the others, agree he was killed @ 1750 by the Iroquois.

1754 – King Haigler – or ?1750?

Some think he might have been amongst the young Catawba boys sent  to Fort Christanna to be trained in that school. To have risen in rank form the royal family he must have proven himself to have been a great warrior. We don't hear much about him until the death of the Young Warrior.

Haigler was b. @ 1700. Blumer calls him “Nop-ke-hee”. Blumer says (p 33) Nopkehee was a headman by 1740. Blumer contradicts what is written on this page. He writes of Nop-ke-hee, “His life changed dramatically in October 1750. At that time, Catawba King Yanabe Yalangway (Young Warroir) travelled from the Nation to Charles Town for an official meeting with South Carolina's authorities. The meeting over, Yanabe Yalangway travelled back to the Catawba Nation with fourteen of his headmen. Just outside of Charles Town, the party was ambushed by Northern Indians (Iroquois) and all of them were killed. Only one headman was left to the Catawba Nation, Nop-ke-hee, who was out in the county hunting. The Catawba immediately sent runners out to find him and inform him that he had been elected king of the Catawba by the General Council.”

One thing Blumer doesn't mention, however it should be noted, that anyone named a Principle Chief of just about any American Indian tribe had probably shown themselves to have been a capable warrior. The fact that they immediately sent runners out to find him speaks to this as well.
Haigler quickly became known as a great negotiator. He made a peace with the Six Nations, meeting with them in New York in June, 1751. In the fall of 1752 a delegation from Six nations visited Catawba and they were treated as friends. Blumer says during this time the Cherokee invited the Catawba to incorporate with them, but Haigler refused.

Remember King Ozato, mentioned in the late 1730s? Per Brown, p. 220, we  have the following comment; "In 1751, Ozusta,  the Catawba King, is listed as the headman of the Kewhohee in the Cherokees. (In South Carolina Indian Affairs Documents, p. 164, and Oruste is mentioned as Catawba King in company with the Cherokees. by Logan I, p.208. John Henry Logan: A Hisory of the Upper Country of South Carolina from the Earliest Periods to the Close of the War of Independence, Vol. 1, S. G. Courtenay & Co., Charleston, 1859,). There was a band of the Catawba that disappears from history called the "Keyauwees". There was a lower Cherokee town called "Keowee". See the simalarity of the names of the three villages? Kew-ho-hee vs. Key-au-wee, vs. Ke-o-wee? Did some of the Catawba at this time decide to unite with the Cherokee and move in with the Lower Cherokee? It appears that this band of the Catawba changed sides, and started allying with the Cherokee. This would have worried King Haigler deeply, and he would have sought allies elsewhere.

At the beginning of the French and Indian War he signed a treaty with the Virginia colony, offering their support in case of war with the French. Many Catawba participated in the war and protected the Virginians from surprise attacks,especially on their western flanks, by the French Indians.
The Treaty of Pine Tree Hill was negotiated. The treaty left the Catawba with two million acres arounf a thirty mile radius of their homes.

(Arantaswa), murdered 1763 (not 1762). Treaty of Pine Tree Hill, reservving 2 million acres.

Well respected ruler. Blumer mentions Haigler's only son dying (p. 54) about the time of the French and Indian War.
Per Blumer (p. 35), As he was preparing for another treaty signing in 1763, as he was travelling to visit the Waxsaw's, he was ambushed and killed by seven Shawnee on August 30th, 1763.

1763 – William Scott
There is some controversy here. Some Catawba say THIS Colonel Ayers never existed. It is believed that Col. Jacob Ayers was in reality William Scott. They say a Jacob Ayers did exist, but he is first mentioned a half a century later. At the following site --
– it reads –

“Elkanah Watson, who in 1786 visited the Catawba settlement at Old Town.” Next is a quote of what Mr. Watson said.

“When I entered the first village, the young Indians and squaws fled in every direction, the men being absent on a hunting expedition. It was some time before I could find the residence of their king or chief New-River, alias General Scott.”

My Catawba friend, when he saw this, already knew it. He responded to a facebook message, That's because General New River was William Scott.” He added, “Do you understand what I mean? There has never been a colonel that was the leader of the Catawba.” And “The first Ayres is 1763 Jacob Ayers. He became Chief in 1823, After General Jacob Scott passed on.”

?1763 – Colonel Ayers?,
(Catawba Nation, by Charles M. Hudson, Univ of Georgia Press, 1970, p 50-51)
– Hudson tells of a Congress held at Augusta, Ga in November 1763. He then says “Because Haigler had been killed two months earlier, a man named Colonel Ayers was elected “King of the Catawbas” at the Congress.” He asked for a reservation of 30 square miles, and was granted half of that – 15 sq mi.

One individual sent me the following information about this “Colonel Ayers,” saying:
Col. Ayers was Hixa-Uraw. Hixa-Uraw was at the treaty negotiations between Virginia and the Catawba in 1756. As Capt. Ayers; Hixa-Uraw fought in the campaigns of (?) 57, (?) 58 and (?) 59. He is the (?) Capt. Aires (?); mentioned in George Washington's letter in 1757. He signed on to the small pox report in (?) 59 to the Gov. of S.C.,. He is the same Ayers who visited the Gov. of S.C. in 1760 for arms and supplies for the Catawba and sought a commission to raise scouts for the war. And he is the same (?) Col. Ayers (?) who led the indian scouts with the 77th Highlanders in the Cherokee war 1761-1763. Col. Ayers was hardly inexperienced in 1763 when he led at the Treaty of Augusta.”

Another indivedual contacted me about Col. Ayers. He/she later claimed this particular man was named James Ayers, and that no Colonel was never Principle Chief of the Catawba, and that he was just an interpreter. The two arguments are at odds, and I can not confirm or deny either account. (from the “Catawba Nation, Treasures in History”, by Thomas Blumer, P. 40); Blumer said; “The Catawba were led by Col. Ayers who served as regent following the untimely death of King Haigler . . . Colonel Ayers spoke English, and the Catawba were the only Indians not in need of a translator. So part of Blumer's statement agrees with one, and part with the other people I was in contact with. So there is a mystery hre that someone might figure out, but not by me, and not today.

1765 – King Frow
Blumer said King Frow abdicatd in “1776” (Catawba Nation, Treasures in History, p. 52). Hudson says Ayers “apparently” fell out of favor with the South Carolina government. SC Gov. Samuel Bull recruited Samuel Wyly to organize a meeting of the Catawbas in Jan 1765, and King Prow was elected. Three headmen of the Catawba are mentioned – Captain Thompson, John Chestnut, and Wateree Jenny (Kirkland and Kennedy, 1905, 56-7).

Per Blumer, p. 43-44 (Catawba Nation, Treasures in History), we hear King Frow rules the Catawba Nation. Blumer says King Prow was Haigler's legitimate heir. That means he married King Haigler's daughter. In 1775, King Frow became alarmed as to what was happening, as he saw his White neighbors preparing for war. He sent two runners to Charleston to find out what was going on. They returned with the information that the Governor expected the Catawba to stand by the state of South Carolina. Blumer says (p. 42) “[King Frow] became the first Catawba Revolutionary War casuality.”

1776 – General New River.
He was born about 1725. In the late 1730s he was said to have killed a prominent Shawnee warrior on the New River, and earned his name from this event. However he would have been a child. That makes no sense. I was informed that William Scott and General New River were the same person. His wife was grand-daugher of King Haigler. Per Brown (The Catawba Indians, p 228) at the time Yanuba Yalangway was murdered in 1749, Matthew Toole was interpreter for the council, meaning he knew both English and the Catawba language. Brown says, “Trader Toole was to be closely associated with the Catawba during Haigler's service. He is thought to have been the father of Sally New River, Haigler's grand-daughter.” Brown also records the following (letter from Thomas Dryden Spratt to Lymon Draper, 12Jan1871; Draper MSS, Sumter, 15 VV, 99-100. Spratt says Sally New River was the daughter of Matthew Toole and the daughter of King Haigler. Perhaps his act of bravery earned him both a new name and a wife. By the time of the American Revolution, he would have been about 50 years old, not a young man. He was to lead the Catawba through yet another great war.

Per a Catawba friend of mine, General New River was also known as “William Scott”. At this link (p. 50) in 1786

Ruled until 1802 when he died.
1803 – General Jacob Scott. Ruled until 1821. South Carolina began negotiating for their 144,000 acres, but he refused to make a deal.
1822 – Gen. Jacob Ayers – ruled until 1837

1838 – General William Harris
– died before serving a full year. Blumer says he was the last Chief to resist removal (Ibid. p. 53).

1839 – Gen. James Kegg
– Pamunkey Indian. Signed treaty of 1840. Removed to Cherokee of NC, tried to obtain money promised by the treaty. Blumer says Kegg was ½ Pamunkey
1841-1852 – Era of Confusion
– leadership slpit between Cherokee, NC and York County, SC. Blumer says (Ibid, p. 53) “The Treaty of Nation's Ford was an immediate disaster . . . the Catawba gahered around David Harris . . . a descendant of Revolutionary war hero Peter Harris . . . [They marched] west to join the Cherokee . . . their zeal for removal barely left York District . . .” They returned home only to discover their lands no longer belonged to them.

1848 – 1852 William Morrison
(Catawba Nation, by Charles M. Hudson, Univ of Georgia Press, 1970, p 65)
– “In 1848 the BIA received a letter (Senate Document #144, 2nd session, 54th Congress, 3 Feb 1897) from the Catawbas at Cherokee requesting that an officer be appointed to organize their removal to the west. The letter was signed by Chief William Morrison and the heads of all Catawba famalies. “There are a total of 42 “heads of famalies” . . . 15 male, 27 female . . . Hudson says – “One of my Catawba informants told me that Morrison is believed to have been a white man.” In 1851 four Catawba families were adopted as Choctaw in I.T., today known as southeastern Oklahoma. These four were from the Ayers, Heart, Keggo, and Morrison families. They were granted Choctaw Citizenship (Catawba Nation, Treasures in History, Thomas Blumer, p. 55-56.
  • 1850-1852 – ?James Kegg?

1852 – 1860 Chief Allen Harris
– 1860;Blumer says, “In December 1859, the South carolina legislature appropriated $500 to pay Speial Agent David G. Rice to handle the land inspection in Indian Territory and coax the Catawba's into moving west. It was agreed that two or three Catawba's were to accompany Rice to the Choctaw Nation. The delegation finally consisted of Chief Allen Harris, Councilman John Harris, and Rice. Unfortunately for the project, Chief Haris died soon after arriving in the Choctaw Nation . . . John Harris remained with Rice and gave the project new life.

I read a second version of this event which says the Choctaw were expecting money from their adoption of the four Catawba families earlier and were upset that it was not forthcoming. I'll cite that when I find it again. Blumer's account differs thom that one. They quotes Rice; (“1860 Removal of Indians had Lasting Effects”The Herald, Sep 23, 1999 and “The Would-be Catawba Removal of 1860, York County, South Carolina”, June 1993). He says “. . . [John Harris] was well pleased with the country so much so that he induced a majority of the tribe here to petition the Choctaw Council for admission but for some miscarriage we heard nothing from the said Council (Choctaw). I think it would lend greatly to the happines and prosperity of the Catawba's to emigrate to said country. The whole authority is invested in the Choctaw Council and as we have not heard from them I would recemmend that we defer action for the present.”

Blumer then goes on to say Rice was wrong to blame the Choctaw Council for inaction, as the Civil War was looming in the near future. The South Carolina government was debating secession in Nov 1860 and they voted to Seceed in Dec. 20, 1860. The Choctaw Nation was also concerned with the pending war. The issue of the Catawba would have to wait.

1861 – Chief John Scott – ruled until 1868. His last official act was to circulate a petition authporized by the General Counsil
1869 – Chief john Harris, CSA veteran, ruled until 1873
1874 – Chief John Scott, until 1884
1885 – Chief James Harris
1886 – Chief Thomas Morrison, ruled until 1891. Began a lawsuit against South Carolina . . . not settled until 1993.
1892 – Chief James Harris – ruled until 1895. Continued suit against the state of SC under the direction of the Catawba General Cuncil.
1896 – Chief Robert Lee Harris – ruled one year.
1897 – Chief Lewis Gordon – ruled til 1900 or possibly until 1903
1904 – Chief William Harris – Billy Bowlegs Harris – one year
1905 – “committee of three”
1906 – confusion of who was chief, David A. Harris or James Harris?
1907 – Chief David A. Harris until 1927. Ded in 1930.
1927 – Samuel T. Blue, ruled until 1939.
1940 – Federal Wardship period possibly until 1941
1944 – Chief Albert Sanders, ruled for a few months.
1944 – Chief Douglas Harris until 1946.
1946 – Chief raymond Harris, WW2 veteran, ruled until 1951.
1952 – Chief Ephriam George ruled a few months
1952 – Chief Nelson Blue ruled a few months
1953 – Chief Ephrain George ruled until 1955
1956 – Chief Samuel T. Blue ruled a few months.
1956 – Chief Idle Sanders ruled a few months
1957 – Chief Samuel T. Blue ruled for a year.
1958 – Chief Nelson Blue ruled for a few months and resigned
1959 – Chief Albert Sanders ruled durnig the termination period and and reclaimed office until his death.
1973 – Chief Gilbert Blue was elected by Catawba General Council held to reorganize the tribe. About 40 Catawba citizens voted. Chief Blue remained in office during the entire settlement period. Refused to allow Catawba General Council meetings
2000 – Chief William Harris. Nominated “Chief by Catawba General Council Meeting. In spite of Blue's opposition , the General Council continues to meet.

Other Rulers and headmen of the Catawba and of Other Bands
Brown equates Essetaswa as being Kng Haigler, as he was also known as Arantaswa, and the two names are virtually identical. Brown says King Haigler signed his name “Arantaswa” on the treaty with Virginia in 1756. This is after the death of Young Warrior, so it appears to contradict other accounts that say King Haigler was the only head man to survive. Brown states4 headmen survived, also on page 228, they are; “Captain Haris, or Chuppepaw, Jemey Bullen, or Spanaw, Red Button or Tuck-Se-Kay, and Newcomer, or Chucke Chuckhe. Chupehaw and Tooksesey signed the 1756 treaty. Toucsecay attended the Albany Conferene where peace was finally made between the Catawba and the Six Nations. Captain Newcomer signed a letter with Haigler in 1753. Jemey Bullen made a name for himself for bravery during the French and Indian War. [note to look up – is this the man killed that Washington had buried with honors, saying he was a brave man?]

Brown also saws (p. 228) “Other headmen commissioned in 1749 with Essetaswa and Captain Taylor were; Captain Tom or Magehe (I thought at first this might mean “McGehee”, a Scottish surname. But it seems a lot of Catawba surnmaes end in “Ge-he”), Capt. Money, or Pe-de-hog Con-sau, Captain Peter or Thus-saw-wont-see, Captain Weator or Top-son-hag-grew, The Otter or Handehu, Sugar Jemey, or Pic-ka-ha-sa-ke-he, clubfoot (no Indian name) and Hopkins Gentleman (no Indian name).”

Charles Hudson – my opinion. Tries to be objective and usually is, but every once in a while, lets his opinion overrule his objectivity.

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