Sunday, April 7, 2013

Book References II

The Old Cheraws by Alexander Gregg.
p 13 -- That the Pedees [Indians] owned slaves will appear from the following notice, published in the Gazette of the day, Aug 30-Sep 6, 1748 --
"Taken up by Michael Welch, overseer to the subscriber on an island called Uchee Island, a Negro fellow, who gives the following account of himself, viz., that he belonged formerly to Mr. Fuller, and he was by him sold to Billy, king of the Pedee Indians; that the Catawba Indians took him from King Billy, and carried him into their nation, and that in endeavoring to make his escape from the Catawbas, he was lost in the woods, and had been so a considerable time before he was taken . . . Any person having any right or property in the said fellow, may apply to the subscriber, now in Charleston."
. . .
still p 13 --
The Pedees and other smaller tribes who now lead a wondering life, were in constant danger of being enticed off by the more powerful and hostile nations of Indians, to join them in their predatory excursions.

The following letters indicate the anxiety felt on the subject by the Catawbas, as well as by the provisional government of this period, the first was addressed by th King of the Catawbas to his excellency, James Glen, Esq : --
“There are a great many Pedee Indians living in the settlements that we want to come and settle amongst us. We desire for you to send for them, and advise
page 14 -- this, and give them this string of wampum in token that we want them to settle here, and will always live like brothers with them. The Northern Indians want them to settle with us; for they are now at peace, they may be hunting in the woods or straggling about, killed by some of them, except they join us, and make but one nation, which will be a great addition of strength to us."
his mark, the (x) King"
[21 Nov, 1752]
The People of the River by Douglas Summers Brown
Surviving documents from the Revolution indicate that normally the Catawba fought as a unit under the leadership of White officers. But their own separate company of 41 men with Thomas Drennan as Captain, joined General Sumter during 1780, 1781-1782. A pay bill of this company, dated June 21, 1783, survives. Captain Drennan may have been related to a John Drennan, who was scribe for King Prow’s March 27, 1770, letter to the council, and who was identified as living 2 miles from the Nation.
The roster shows a Catawba named “Willis” as being killed at Rocky Mount and another George White, who claimed the loss of a horse at Fishing Creek, where the Americans were surprised and defeated. The roster, a rare document, follows:
Capt. Thomas Drennan, Genrl Newriver, John Brown, Robbin, Willis – dec’d,killed at Rocky Mount (his wife and children alive), Suggar Jamey, Pinetree George, Morrison, Henry White, John Cagg, Quash, Little Mick, Patrick Readhead, Billey Williams, Big Jamey,Billy Cagg, John Cannon, Doctor John, Chunkey Pipe, Captain Petter, Billey Otter, Little Alleck, John Eayrs, Petter Harris, Jacob Eayrs, Billey Readhead, John Thompson, Jove [Joe or Prow?], Patrick Brown,
P 269 -- George Cantey, Jacob Scott, Bobb, James Eayrs, Little Stephen, little Charley, John Celliah, Petter George, George White, Jack Simmons, Billey Scott, Young John, Tom Cook.
White men: Matthew Brown, Michael Delou, Ralph Smith.Another list shows Indians in service for which there is no voucher: Genrl Newriver, Capt. Quash, Jno. Brown, Peter Harris, Jacob Scott, Jacob Eayrs, Petr George, John Cagg, Little Charley, Jamey, Billey Otter, Coll. John Eayrs, Billey Scott, little Aleck, Tom Cook, Sugar jenny, Gilbert, Robin, Little Mick, Jno. Thompson, Joe, Little Stephen, Billey Cagg, Billey Redhead, Billey Williams, John Killian, Capt. Redhead, Tom Cook, Henry White, George Harris, Pinetree George, Chuckeface Jemmy, Bob, John Nettles, Jno. Thompson, John Scott, George Scott, George White, horse lost at Sumter’s defeat [Fishing Creek]
(66) . . . a group of Catawba was with General Sumter at Hanging Rock (67) . . .66 –AA3931 S. C. Archives.
67 – Floyd, p. 109, says 35 Catawba participated. The Hutcheson letter puts the number at 12.
P 270 --As Cornwallis army approached the Nation, after the defeat and flight of General Horatio Gates from Camden, the Catawba’s fled with women and children to Virginia (69). They are thought to have refugeed there with the Pamunkey Tribe, but no proof of this has been discovered.
(69) Mills, p. 124: Richard Winn, “General Richard Winn’s Notes – 1780”, ed. Samuel C. Williams. S. C. H. & G. M., XLIV (Jan 1943), 6-7.
P 271 –
The full extent of the Catawba’s participation in the Revolution will probably never be known (75). Captain Drennan’s paybill fails to mention other Catawbas known to have given their services, some of whom were Billy Ayers, later a chieftan, Captain Gilbert George, Major William Cantey, Captain Kelly, John Scott, Catawba George, and Mosey Ayers. (76). A hero of the war was Major John Nettle . . . (77)
The only Catawba, or Indian connected with the Catawbas who received a federal pension for his services was Robert Marsh, a Pamunkey who settled among the Catawba . . . (78) (75) Draper MSS, Sumter papers, 16 VV, p 318, says that 200 Catawbas were with Sumter; also Hutchinson Letter; John Henry Logan, “Extracts from Logan manuscript [for upper South Carolina], inHIstorical Collections of Joseph Habersham Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, III, Pt II, 83.
(76) Draper MSS, Sumter papers, 5 VV, 7-8, 40, Ibid., 20 VV, 216.
(77) Ibid., 5 VV, 8.
(78) Report of Sec. of War, 1835, pension rolls Vol. III, Pt. 1 (S. C. section)                                                                    
  Citing Resources from the Western History Collections For citations in published or unpublished papers, this repository should be listed as the Western History Collections, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma.
When I find something about the Catawba in Oklahoma/Arkansas I will place it here. Last week my job took me to Oklahoma City. When I am up there I try, if I have the time, to visit the Oklahoma Historical Society. They had a room full of Indian or Territorial records, and I looked up some 3x5 index cards on "Indian Pioneer papers". These are 1930's records where old-timers were interviewed (part of a Dust Bowl era project) to get them to talk about what life was like in Indian Territory, pre-1907 Oklahoma, before we became the 46th state to join the Union. There were several references mentioning the Catawba. However I could not find them online when I searched so I will have to write them back to get copies of these documents. I was told I could get the microfilm copied for a fee.
I did find online several reference to the Catawba however. I believe Tony Hill has some of these on his website. I think he has some, perhaps all of these on his website. Excerpts of these files are below, as well as links to these files. Since my great uncle is also mentioned I put a link to our family's records are found as well.
Mrs. Caroline Everett, informant, Council Hill, Oklahoma (daughter of William E, Gentry). Interview as given to Jas. S. Buchanan, Indian research worker.
William E. Gentry was born in Calhoun County, Mississippi, Mar. 11, 1842, a son of James and Caroline Gentry. At an aarly age he accompanied his parents on their removal to the Indian Territory. His education was acquired at the Asbury Mission.
End of quote
“Asbury” was a famous founder of the Methodist Church – so this was a United Methodist run school, which in those days was called “Methodist-Episcopal South. It mentions he served in the Civil war in a Creek and later a Seminole regiment in Indian territory serving the Confederacy. Then says he became a big cattleman after the war. Then (resuming direct quote) –
By ancestry he was a Catawba Indian adopted into the Creek Tribe.
End of direct quite.
It then discusses how he became a prominent settler in Indian Territory, dying in 1908, saying “He rested as he preferred to live, in the wide open space of the plains, and for its people he loved and lived for.”
So often on the internet people say their ancestors fled recognition as “Indian” so they wouldn’t get sent to Oklahoma, acting as though living here were a horrible fate – but most Oklahoman’s think/thought like Mr. Gentry did, and love Oklahoma dearly, as do I.
I suspect researching Calhoun County, Mississippi might reveal Mr. Gentry’s mother’s maiden name, and perhaps where they migrated from before living in Mississippi.
The link above is interesting because it talks about Mr. Gentry and Mr. Le Blanche went into business together in Checotah. Interesting since both claimed Catawba ancestry. Also the interview was conducted in Okmulgee, the town where I was born. One more thing – this Mr. D. M. Smith (the man being interviewed) taught in the Choctaw Nation a short while, and states the Choctaw children spoke no English – this was the 1890s – so if the Melungeons in the 1790s didn’t even know their tribal identity nor language – they must have had Indian blood from coastal tribes, or tribes already long assimilated into White culture. That means they were not Cherokee. I will quote a little of it below –
“. . . I heard that Judge Le Blanche and Col E. W. Gentry were opening up a hardware store In Checotah. So in 1894 I went to Checotah to work for them . . . My employers were very fine men. Colonel Gentry had been an officer in the Civil War and judge Le Blanche was a Catawba Indian, one of the last.”
End of quote.
Interview with Willie Lerblanche (I suspect it is a typo – should be Le Blanche).
Start –
My grandfather was Elija Hermigine Lerblanche. He was born March 1836, son of a Louisiana Frenchman and Vicey Gentry, who was a daughter of Elija Gentry a white man who married a full-blood Catawba indian. He came from Alabama with his parents to the Creek Nation . . .
End of quote
So the Le Blanche (or what this file calles Lerblanche) family and the Gentry’s are related, with several files now calling them both Catawba Indians.
This is an interview of a Creek Freedman named George McIntosh. Start of quote --
Date of birth: date unknown, year: 1870.
Place of birth: near Creek Agency, Fern Mountain, Creek Nation
Name of Father: Tobe McIntosh, Place of birth, Alabama.
Other information about Father: slave owned by John McIntosh.
Name of Mother: Tama Johnson McIntosh, Place of birth: Unknown.
Other information about Mother: She was a Catawba Indian married to Tobe McIntosh at the Creek Agency after the slaves were made free.
End of quote
Nothing more unfortunately, is said of the Catawba. but it is an interesting read if you are interested in the history of the Creek freedmen, and territorial Oklahoma in the 19th century. It would be interesting to know if Tama Johnson, called a Catawba Indian, came to Indian Territory also as a slave, or was she a Catawba who emigrated west later? I think I saw “Johnson" as one of their surnames that disappeared. Have to look it up, though.
My great uncle – grandma’s older brother Uncle Oscar -- was interviewed here (link above). His wife (no Indian blood) was interviewed here –
I have known of this document for many years, but I am still going over from time to time and often find new things. Great Uncle Oscar Richey wrote about his family living at/near Fort Smith, Arkansas at one time, and that is where that “Western Catawba Indian Association” was based, and that is why I am trying to discover more about it. We had always thought our Indian ancestry was Cherokee – but maybe it was Catawba instead. 

No comments:

Post a Comment